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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is an air mass?
Large body of air w/ uniform temperature & mosture conditions in a horizontal plane
What are air masses named according to?
Moisture content, location, and temperature
What are the four northern hemisphere air mass source regions?
Arctic, Polar, Tropical and Equitorial
What is the source and latitude for "A" air masses?
Arctic: 60-90 degrees N
What is the source and latitude for "P" air masses?
Polar: 40-60 degrees N
What is the source and latitude for "T" air masses?
Tropical: South of 30 degrees N
What is the source and latitude for "E" air masses?
Equitorial: +/- 10 degrees of equator
Can the 'source region' for air mass source regions change when the mass leaves the initial region?
No
What indicates the stability of an air mass?
Temperature
What is the stability of warm and cold air masses?
Stable and Unstable, respectively
What are the air mass source regions (surface)?
Maritime (m) and Continental (c)
What is the moisture content of a Maritime airmass?
High
What is the moisture content of a Continental airmass?
Low
What are the 6 types of source regions / surfaces used for air mass symbology?
Continental Arctic, Continental Polar, Maritime Polar, maritime Tropical, Continental Tropical, Equitorial
What is a surface front?
Point where a front comes in contact with the ground
How is a cold front marked?
Blue, Triangles on line
How is a warm front marked?
Red, Half circles on line
How is an occluded front marked?
Purple, Alternating Triangles and Half Circles, same side of line
How is a stationary front marked?
Blue and Red, Alternating Triangles and Half Circles, alternating side of line
How is a trough marked?
Brown or Black, dotted line
How is a ridge marked?
Yellow or Black, zig-zag line
How is a squall line marked?
Purple, alternating long dash w/ two short dashes
How high do front characteristics extend (typical and max)?
15,000 to 20,000 feet / sometimes as high as tropopause
Which front moves faster, cold or warm?
Cold
How does wind direction experienced change across a front?
Counter-clockwise
How must heading change when flying across a front to maintain ground track?
Adjust heading to the right
What is the pressure surrounding a front?
Trough of low pressure
What are the 4 differences used to classify fronts?
TDWP - Temperature, dew point (moisture), winds, and pressure
What is the severity of clouds and precipitation occuring along a front dependent upon?
Moisture, stability (primary two) plus: slope, speed, contrast in temperature and moisture
What type of precipitation & stability is found with stratiform clouds?
steady precipitation and little turbulence
What type of precipitation/stability is found with cumuliform clouds?
Showery and turbulence
What are the general slopes of warm and cold fronts?
Shallow and steep
What is a cold front?
Leading edge of an advancing cold air mass, overtaking and wedging underneath a warmer air mass
What can cold fronts pruduce?
Violent and unstable conditions including thunderstorms (cumulonimbus clouds) and severe turbulence
What is the speed, direction and wind shift of cold fronts?
20 kts, twds SE, SW to NW wind shift
What indicates the approach of a cold front?
Decreasing pressure, altocumulus clouds, lower clouds, rain/snow shower, cumulonimbus clouds
What indicates the recession of a cold front?
Rapidly clearing skies, cumulus clouds, decreasing temperature and dew point
What may form near a cold front?
Cumuliform clouds, showers, thunderstorms
What may form well ahead of a cold front?
Fast-moving thunderstorms and squall lines
How can you recognize cold fronts over flat terrain?
Long line of cumuliform clouds on horizon
What happens to the identification of cold fronts when flying high?
Lower frontal clouds are often hidden if above an altocumulus layer
What happens to the identification of cold fronts when flying low?
Stratus or stratocumulus decks extending miles ahead of a front may conceal the main clouds
What are common cold front flight problems?
Wind shift (generally SW to NW); low ceiling/vis (esp slow moving fronts); turbulence; precipitation/icing; thunderstorms/squall lines
What is a squall line?
Line of violent thunderstorms, generally 50-300 miles ahead & parallel of a cold front
What are characteristics of squall lines in terms of spacing and wind shift?
Close together w/ 90 degree wind shift from SW to NW
What is a warm front?
Advancing warm air mass overtaking a colder air mass
How far does the cloud system extend ahead of a warm front?
500-700 miles
What is the speed, direction and wind shift of warm fronts?
15 kts, twds NE, SE to SW wind shift
What is the most common cloud found along a warm front?
stratiform
What is the sequence of clouds approaching a warm front from the east?
Cirrus, cirrostratus, altostratus, nibostratus, stratus, rain and fog
What precipitation is associated with a warm front?
Stead precipitation increasing with approach, ending upon passing
What are common warm front flight problems?
Wind shift (generally SE to SW); low ceilings/vis; occasional turbulence and thunderstorms (embedded); precipitation and icing
What is the wind shift of a stationary front?
180 degrees from any direction
What is an occluded front?
Cold front overtakes a slower warm front
What are the two types of occluded fronts and what does it depend on?
cold and warm; depends on which front ramains in contact with the ground
What is the speed, direction and wind shift of warm occluded fronts?
15 kts, twds NE, SE to NW wind shift
What is the speed, direction and wind shift of cold occluded fronts?
20 kts, twds NE, SE to NW wind shift
What is the wind shift of an occluded front?
180 degrees
What is the weather associated with an occluded front (ahead and behind)?
Ahead - warm front ahead; Behind - cold front behind