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40 Cards in this Set

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group of chemical compounds used in refriderators, aerosol sprays, and foam packaging that destroy ozone molecules
chlorofluorocarbon
transfer of thermal energy from particle to particle through a material when there is a temperature difference; transfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into each other
conduction
transfer of thermal energy that happens when particles move from one place to another where there is temperature difference, occurs in gases and liquids
convection
changes the direction of all free-moving objects to the right north of the equator and to the left to the south of the equator; creates wind patterns across the world and results from the rotation of Earth.
Coriolis effect
all the water that is found at Earth's surface, of which 97 percent is salt water and only three percent is fresh water.
hydrosphere
layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere.
ionosphere
narrow belt of strong winds that blows near the top of the troposphere.
jet stream
nightly movements of air created when cold air over the land forces up the warmer air above the sea.
land breezes
stratospheric layer with a high concentration of ozone; protects Earth by absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation.
ozone layer
energy that travels by waves in all directions from its source (ch. 5, p. 129); transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
radiation
daily movements of air created when cooler, denser air moving inland from the ocean forces warm air over the land to rise.
sea breezes
layer of the atmosphere closest to the ground; contains 75 percent of the atmospheric gases, dust, ice, and liquid water and is where weather, smog, and clouds occur
troposphere
type of energy that comes to Earth from the sun and is mostly absorbed by the ozone layer; can cause cancer and other health problems in many types of plants and animals.
ultraviolet radiation
the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the atmosphere through evaporation, condensation, and percipitation.
water cycle
large body of air that has the same properties as the Earth's surface over which it formed.
air mass
temperature at which air is saturated and condensation forms; changes with the amount of moisture in the air.
dew point
specialized radar system that sends out repeated radio waves, monitors the reflected waves from distant storms, and can tell the direction a storm is moving.
Doppler radar
stratus cloud that forms when air is cooled to its dew point and condenses near the ground.
fog
boundary between warm and cold air masses
front
amount of water vapor held in the air.
humidity
large, swirling, low-pressure system that forms over tropical oceans and has winds of at least 120 km per hour.
hurricane
line drawn on a weather map that connects points of equal atmospheric pressure
isobar
line drawn on a weather map that connects points of equal temperature.
isotherm
person who studies weather, takes measurements of temperature, air pressure, winds, humidity, and precipitation, and uses information provided by weather instruments to make weather maps and forecasts.
meteorologist
water falling from clouds, including rain, snow, sleet, and hail
precipitation
measure of the amount of water vapor that the air is holding compared to the amount it can hold at a specific temperature.
relative humidity
shows the weather conditions at one specific location, using symbols on a map.
station model
violent, whirling wind that moves in a narrow path over land, forms a funnel, and can reach up to 500 km per hour and be highly destructive.
tornado
present state of the atmosphere, including air pressure, wind, temperature, and the amount of moisture in the air.
weather
any structure or behavior that helps an organism survive in its environment; develops in a population over a long period of time.
adaptation
pattern of weather that occurs in a particular area over many years.
climate
destruction or cutting down of trees.
deforestation
a climatic event that starts in the tropical Pacific Ocean and sets off changes in the atmosphere.
El Niño
rise in global temperatures because of the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
global warming
natural heating process caused when gases in the atmosphere trap heat; prevents Earth from being too cold to support life.
greenhouse effect
behavioral adaptation for survival during cold, winter months, where an animal becomes inactive and its metabolic needs are lowered; in amphibians, involves burying themselves in mud or leaves until temperatures become warmer.
hibernation
regions extending from 66.5° north and south latitudes to the poles that receive solar energy at a low angle or not at all and may be covered with ice year-round.
polar zones
short-term period of climate change caused by regular differences in temperature, daylight, and weather patterns that are due to Earth's tilt on its axis as it revolves around the sun.
season
regions with moderate temperatures located between the tropics and the polar zones.
temperate zones
region between latitudes 23.5° north and 23.5° south that receives the most solar radiation and is always hot, except at high elevations.
tropics