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56 Cards in this Set

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acid rain
rain that contains more acid than normal
air mass
a huge body of air that has similar temperature, pressure and humidity throughout
air pressure
a force that is the result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area
altitude
elevation above sea level
anemometer
an instrument used to measure wind speed
aneroid barometer
an instrument that measures changes in air pressure without using a liquid.
atmosphere
the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth
aurora borealis
a colorful glowing display in the sky caused when particles from the sun strike oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the ionosphere (Northern Lights)
Barometer
an instrument used to measure changes in air pressure
cirrus
wispy feathery clouds made mostly of ice crystals that form at high levels above 6 km.
condensation
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that is touching
convection
the transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
Coriolis Effect
the way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left
cumulus
clouds that form less than 2 km above the ground and look like fluffy, rounded piles of cotton
density
the amount of mass of a substance to a given volume
dew point
the temperature at which condensation begins
drought
long periods of low precipitation
electromagnetic wave
a form of energy that can travel though space
evaporation
the process by which water molecules in liquid water escape into the air as water vapor
exosphere
the outer most layer of the thermosphere extending outward into space
global winds
winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
greenhouse effect
the process by which heat is trapped in the atmosphere by water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and other gases that form a "blanket" around the Earth
heat
the energy transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one
humidity
a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air
infrared radiation
a form of energy with wavelengths that are longer than visible light
ionosphere
the lower part of the thermosphere, where electrically charged particles called ions are found
jet streams
bands of high speed winds about 10 Km abouve Earth's surface
land breeze
the flow of air from land to a body of water
latitude
the distance from the equator, measured in degrees
local winds
winds that blow over short distances
mercury barometer
an instrument that measures changes in air pressure, consisting of a glass tube partially filled with mercury
mesosphere
the middle layer of the atmosphere in which most meteoroids burn up
monsoons
sea and land breezes over a large region that change direction with the seasons
ozone
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the usual two
photochemical smog
a brownish haze that is a mixture of ozone and other chemicals, formed when nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and other pollutants react with each other in the presence of sunlight
pollutants
harmful substances in the air, water, or soil
precipitation
any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface
pressure
the force pushing on an area of surface
psychrometer
an instrument used to measure relative humidity, consisting of a wet bulb thermometer and a dry bulb thermometer
radiation
the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
rain gauge
an instrument used to measure the amount of precipitation
relative humidity
the percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold at that temperature
scattering
reflection of light in all directions
sea breeze
the flow of air from an ocean or lake to the land
stratosphere
the second lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere; the ozone layer is located in the upper part
stratus
clouds that form in flat layers
temperature
the average amount of energy of motion in the molecules of a substance
thermal energy
the energy of motion in the molecules of a substance
thermometer
an instrument used to measure temperature, consisting of a thin glass tube with a bulb on one end containing mercury or alcohol
troposphere
the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere where weather occurs
ultraviolet radiation
a form of energy with wavelengths that are shorter than visible light
water vapor
water in the form of a gas
weather
the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place
wind
the horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure
wind chill factor
increased cooling caused by the wind