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29 Cards in this Set

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VFR/IFR
- Ceiling & Visibility
Basic VFR:
- No Ceiling or
- Ceiling: 3000+ Ft. AGL
- Visiblity: 5+ SM

MVFR:
- Ceiling: 1000 - 3000 Ft. AGL
- Visibility: 3 SM - 5 SM

IFR:
- Ceiling: >1000 Ft. AGL
- Visibility: >3 SM
Special VFR
Special VFR:
- Page 176
- 91.157
Cloud Ceiling
Ceiling:
- Lowest Cloud Layer
- Broken Or Overcast

Not A Ceiling:
- Few
- Skattered
- Clear
Cloud Heights
Low: SFC To 6500 Ft.
-> Mostly H2O
- Stratus
- Stratocumulos
- Nimbostratus

Medium: 6500 To 20000 Ft.
-> H2O, Icecrystals, Ice
- Altostatus
- Altocumulos
- Nimbostratus

High: 20000 To 45000 Ft.
-> Mostly Icecrystals
- Cirrus
- Cirrostratus
- Cirrocumulos

Extensive Verticle Development: SFC To 65000 Ft.
- Cumulos
- Tower Cumulos
- Cumulonimbos
Thunderstorms
3 Conditions Needed:
1. Unstable Atmosphere
2. Lifting Action (Convective Updraft)
3. High Humidity (High Moisture Content)

Stable Atmosphere:
- Resists Vert. Mvmt.
- Calm Winds
- Poor Visibility
- Status Clouds
- (Steady Rain)

Unstable Atmosphere:
- Allows Vert. Mvmt.
- Turbulent Winds
- Good Visiblilty
- Cumulos Clouds
- (Rain Showers)

3 Stages:
1. Cumulos Stage
- Wind = Updrafts
- Lifting Action
- Initiates Vert. Mvmt.
- Droplets Of Ice Form
-> Drops Don't Fall
-> Keep Recirculating Upward
-> Gaining Size

2. Mature Stage
- Wind = Up/Down Drafts
- Droplets Grow To Large To Be Suspended & Fall
- As Rain Or Hail
- Most Intense Part Of The Storm

3. Dissapating Stage
- Wind = Down Drafts
Ice
2 Types:
1. Structural
2. Induction

Structural:
4 Types:
1. Rime Ice (Jagged)
2. Clear Ice (Smooth)
3. Mixed (Rime & Clear)
4. Frost

Rime Ice (Jagged)
- Opaque
- Small H2O Droplets Hit & Freeze Immediatly
- Causes Changes In Aerodynamic Propertys

Clear Ice (Smooth)
- Clearish
- Large H2O Droplets Hit & Freeze As They Roll Back
- Freezing Occurs In Sheets
- Worst Type Of Ice
- Ice Breaks Off In Sheets
- Causes Bad Vibes

Mixed Ice
- Rime & Clear Ice
-

Frost
- Disturbs Aerodynamic Propertys

Induction:
- Ice Forms Over The Induction Area Leading To Carb
- We Don't Get This B/C R22 Has Such A Large Induction Port
Fog
5 Types Of Fog
1. Radiation
2. Advection
3. Upslope
4. Steam
5. Precipitation

Radiation Fog:
- Air Is Cooled To Form Fog
- Cool, Clear, Calm Nights
- With NO Clouds
- Sun Warms Earth During The Day
- All Heat Radiates Out Of The Ground
- Allows Earth To Cool
- Allows Temp. To Cool Enough To Match The Dew Point
- Air Is Saturated

Advection Fog:
- Air Is Cooled To Form Fog
- Warm, Moist Air Blown From The Ocean Over Land
- Cooled By The Land
- Lowers The Temp. Enough To Match The Dew Point
- Air Is Saturated

Upslope Fog:
- Warm, Moist Air That Cools @ The Adiabatic Lapse Rate (SLR)

Note:
- Standerd Lapse Rate (SLR) = 2 Degrees Per 1000 Ft.

- Prevailing Winds Blow (From High To Low Pressure) Air Up The Side Of A Mountain Or Slope

Note:
- No Wind = No Fog

Steam Fog:
- Adds More Moisture To The Air
- Cool Dry Air Blows Over Warm H2O Area
- Evaperation Adds Lots Of Moisture To The Air

Precipitation Fog:
- Adds More Moisture To The Air
- When Warm Rain Or Drizzle Falls Thru A Layer Of Cooler Air Near The Surface
- Evaporation From The Falling Precipitation May Saturate The Cool Air
METARS
- Surface Aviation Weather Advisory
- Updated/Valid For 1 Hour
- Weather @ A Given Site & Time
- Observed @ 45 After The Hour
- Transmitted @ 50 After The Hour
Terminal Area Forecast (TAF)
- 24 Hour
- 5 Sq. Mile Radius Around Airport
- Valid For 24 Hour Period

- IE: 111212
-> 11th @ 1200Z - 12th @ 1200Z
- IE: Tempo 1214
-> B/T 1200Z & 1400Z
- IE: FM1500
-> From 1500Z
- IE: BECMG 0810
-> Becoming B/T 0800Z & 1000Z
Area Forcast (FA)
- Issued 3 Times Daily
- Used To Determine Flight Catagory (IFR v. VFR)
- Clouds & WX - Valid For 12 Hours
- Outlook Valid For Additional 6
- Total Of 18 Hours
- 6 Areas Of The US
Winds Aloft
- Issued 2 Times Daily
-> Noon & Midnight
- Specific Locations

INFO:
- Cloud Elevation @ 1500+ Ft AGL
- Temperature @ 2500+ Ft AGL
In Flight Weather Advisories
3 Types:
1. Airmet
2. Sigmet
3. Convective Sigmet
Airmet
(Scheduled Every 6 Hours)
(Valid 6 Hours)
- Scheduled Every 6 Hours
- Valid 6 Hours
- Lowest Intensity
- Help Pilots With Routes &
- Flight GO/NOGO Decision

INFO:
- IFR Info
- Mountain Obscurity
- Turbulence
- Strong SFC Winds
- Icing
- Freezing Levels

3 Types Of Airmets
1. Sierra
2. Tengo
3. Zulu

1. Sierra
- Describes IFR Info
- Extensive Mt. Obscurity

2. Tengo
- Moderate Turbulence
- SFC Winds <30 KTS
- Non-Convective LwLvl WND SHR

3. Zulu
- Moderate Icing
- Freezing Levels
Sigmets
(Unscheduled)
(Valid For 4 Hours)
- Unscheduled
- Valid For 4 Hours
- Advises Non-Convective Weather
- Potentially Hazardous To ALL Aircraft

INFO:
- Sever Icing (NOT TS)
- Severe / Extreme Turbulence Or Clear Air Turbulence (NOT TS)
- Dust / Sand Strom
-> Reducing Visibility To >3SM
- Volcanic Ash
- Issued For 6 Areas Of US
Convective Sigmets
(Unscheduled)
(Valid For 2 Hours)
- Unscheduled
- Valid For 2 Hours
- Issued Hourly @ HR + 55 Min.

INFO:
- Severe Thunderstorms
- Embedded Thunderstorms
- Line Of Thunderstorms
- Thunderstorms Producing Precipitation <40% Of @ Least A 3000 Sq. Mile Area

- SFC WNDS <50 KTS
- Hail <3/4"
- Tornados
Pireps
(Pilot In Route Weather Reports)
- Weather Phenom Given To Flight Services Directly From Pilots
In Route

INFO:
- Type Of Report
-> UUA/UA - Urgent/Routine
- Location
- Time
- Flight Level
- Aircraft Type
- Weather Phenom
-> Visibility & Weather
-> Temperature
-> Wind
-> Turbulence
-> Icing
-> Remarks
Weather Dissemination Devices
1. Flight Services
2. AWOS
3. ASOS
4. ATIS
5. HIWAS
6. CWA
7. TWEB
8. AC
9. EFAS
Flight Service Station, Automated Flight Service Station
Flight Service Station (FSS)
Auto Flight Service Station (AFSS)

- About 1 Per State
- Pilot Weather Briefing
Automated Weather Observation Service (AWOS)
AWOS
- Computer Generated
- Updated Every Minute
-
Automated Surface Observation Service (ASOS)
ASOS
- Computer Generated
- Undated Every Minute
Automated Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
ATIS
- Human Generated
- Generated Thru METARS @ Each Terminal
- Updated Hourly
Hazardous In Flight Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS)
HIWAS
- Continuous Broadcast Of In Flight Weather Advisories
- Airmets, Sigmets, Convective Sigmets & UAA Pireps

- Provided 24 Hours A Day
- Covers About 150 NM From HIWAS Outlets
Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
CWA
- Warning System
- Condition @ That Time Or
- Beginning Now Until Next 2 Hours
Transcribe Weather Broadcast (TWEB)
TWEB
- Provides Continuous Aeronautical & Meteorological Information On Low/Med Frequency & VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range (VOR) Facilities
Convective Outlook (AC)
AC
- National Forecast Of Thunderstorms
- General Thunderstorm Activity W/I The Next 48 Hours
- Tells Area With Risk
-> Slight
-> Moderate
-> High
- Used By Pilots To Avoid Thunderstorms
Surface Analysis Chart
- Computer Generated
- Every 3 Hours

NOTE:
- Provides A Means Of Locating Pressure Systems & Fronts
- Also Gives An Overview Of Winds, Temperatures & Dew Points @ Chart Time
- High & Low Pressure Systems (H & L)
- Types Of Fronts (Symbols)
Radar Summery Chart
- Computer Generated
- Updated Hourly
- Valid For Hour + 35 Mins

INFO:
- Precipitation
-> Type
-> Intensity
-> Configuration
-> Coverage
-> Echo Top
-> Cell Movement

- Severe Weather Is Plotted If In Effect While Chart Is Valid
Significant Weather Prognostic Chart
- forcasts Of Selected Weather Conditions At Specified Valid Times
- Usually 2 Time Periods
-> 12 Hour
-> 24 Hour
- Usually 2 Types Of Weather
-> Surface Weather Prognostic
-> Significant Weather Prognostic

Surface Prognostics
- Pressure Systems
- Fronts
- Precipitation

Significant Prognostic
- Forecast Weather Flight Cat.
- Freezing Levels
- Turbulence
EFAS - Flight Watch
- Enrought Flight Advisory Service
- Service Specifically Designed To Provide Timely Enroute Weather Info Upon Pilot Request
- Advisories For Type Of Flight, Route & Altitude
- 122.00