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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The middle ages is known as the_?
age of faith
Aristotle claimed :
Ptolemaic Theory-that the earth was the center of the universe
When was the birth of Modern Astronomy/Science?
1543
Who was the first to challange the Ptolemaic Theroy and what did he publish in 1543?
Nicholas Copernicus; " On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres"
What was the Heliocentric view?
that the sun was the center of the universe
Who was the second guy to challange the usual way of thinking? What did he claim?
Johannes Kepler; that the orbits were eliptical not circular
Who was the first guy to use the telescope? What did he publish?
Galeleo Galilei; "The Starry Messenger" and "The Dialogue"
What did Newton publish and what was his view?
"Principia"; universe-natural laws
Who were the makers of the Scientific Method?
Descartes and Bacon
Bacon; what essay and advocated what?
not a real scientist; published "The Advancement of Learning"; INductve method of reasoning
Descartes advocated what?
the deductive method of reasoning
The Cartisian Doubt? Descartes book?
skepticism- the "Discourse on Method"
Fontanelle published-
plurality of the worlds
What was the new skepticism?
Religion and government
Baron de Montesquieu published?
"Spririt of Laws"
Volataire published?
Letters on the english and the philosophical dictionary
Denis Dederot-
encyclopedia
John Locke wanted to- published:
change instituitions to make better people- "concerning human behavior"
tabula rosa
people are molded by their environment so change their environment/institutions
Marie Jean de Condorcet- book
made the claim that human perfectability is possible bc of science and reason ;" The progerss of the human mind"
the commercial revolution?
begining of capitalism; trade rivalries are the result
Navigation Acts were passed to enforce what?
Mercantilism- the economic theroy that advocated government economic policies to make the "mother country" as independent or self sufficient as possible
The second 100 yrs war:
4 wars; england and france were always on opposing sides; war of l.o.augsberge and war o.t. spanish succession
Trade wars:
S. E. and F. wanted the West Indies; The Infamous middle passage from africa to new world resulted in many deaths
The war of Jenkins Ear-
England vs. spain in the caribbean began over trade
The war of the Austrian succession/King Georges war (NW)
over The Balance of Power in England; Prussia France and Spain vs. Austria England Holland and Russia
Marie Theresa-
Charles VI daughter that he wanted in power bc he had no male heir
The Pragmatic Sanction-
a document issued by the HRE Charles VI to ensure that his daughter Marie Theresa is accepted as his successor
Frederick II of Prussia attacked to gain control of who?
Silesia
The English Role-
neutral
Battle of Culloden Moor
in Scotland is a defeat for Bonnie Prince Chalres- the last stuart attempt to regain the throne
Treaty of Aix la Chapelle: terms?
ended 2 100 yrs war; Prussia is awarded Silesia
The Diplomatic Revolution:
France and Austria become allies instead of enemies
William Pitt-
good leader for the english during the french and indian war and the 7 yrs war
Battle of Plesey (India)
an English victory
Battle of Quebec (Canada)
an Enlish victory
Fredrick II lead who?
prussia
When was the Treaty of Paris and what did it end?
1763; the 4th war of 2nd 100 yrs war - the 7 yrs war
what were the 4 wars of the 2nd 100 yrs war?
the war of the league of augsburg; the war of the spanish succession; the war of the austrian succession; the seven yrs war
Why did England and France not have enlightened rulers?
E.- limited gov. and the glorious rev. F.- absolute government
Cardinal Fleury-
Louis XV's economic advisor
who said "It will last through me, then the deluge"
Louis XV
Who started the last 2 wars of the 2 100 yrs war and wasnt relegiously partial?
Frederick II
What did Volataire call Fredrick II?
philosopher king
Francois Quesnay-
the french founder of the shool of thinkers known as the Physiocrates (economics)
Adam Smith- book; advocated
a scottish economist who is considered the founder of Classical Economics; "Wealth of nations"; free trade
John Locke:
an english philosopher who founded the empiricist school of philosophy
Jean-Jacques Rousseau- book (2); quote;
Father of Romanticism; "The Social Contract" "Emile"; Man was bron free but everywhere in chains
The American Revolution dates:
1775-1783
What was one of the Policies of Greenville? Colonial Response?
The Stamp Act- first direct tax; boycott
Policy of Townsend established: British Troops do what? what results of their move?
Townsend Acts- indirect taxes; are sent to Boston ton enforce acts of parliament; Boston Massacre
Policy of North?
Tea Act
What are the Intolerable Acts/ Coercive Acts?
4 lwas are passed by Parliament to punish Boston for the dextruction of property (tea)
First Continental Congress drew up several papers inculding the-
Decleration of RIghts and grievances
What important thing happened bw 1st and 2nt congress?
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Second Continental Congress served as the...
first acting provisional government of the united colonies
who was selected to be the commander fo the continental forces?
George Washington
Who was the British King?
King George III
Thomas Paine published what at this time?
Common Sence that decladed independence
the 2nd continental congress apponited 5 ppl to write what?
the decleration of independence
The American Revolutionary War:: Battle of saratoga lead to what?
the franco-american alliance; france is the oldest ally of the US
Battle of yorktown
the fianl major battle of the conflict
what ends the american revolutionary war and its terms?
1783 treaty of paris- american independence
The French Revolution:: the Old Regime-
france during the Bourbon rule
what bourbon is ruling now?
Louis XV
Who is the ruler during the american and french revolutions?
Louis XVI
what is the Estates General?
the 3 social classes in France
1st 2nd and 3rd?
clergy
nobilty
commoners
what was the bourgeoisie?
the upper middle class
in what year did the delegates to the Estates General meet in ____?
1789, Versailles
what 2 step did the 3rd estate take and why?
the Tennis Court Oath, for a Constitution to be written
what was the start of the french revolution?
the storming of the bastille
what was formerly the 3rd estate is now the what?
the work of the National Assembly
what did the national assembly adopt?
the Decleration of the rights of man and citizen which was influenced by the natural rights
what was the march of the poor women?
where the fish marken women march from Paris to Versailles to protest the lack of bread
what was the flight of the king to Varennes?
Louis XVI and the royal family attempt to escape paris
what else did the National Assembly write and what did it establish?
The Constitution of 1791 - limited/constitutional monarchy (king) with an elect Legislative Assembly
what party 1st wins control of the Legislative assembly?
the Girondists
who where the Gerondists?
favored a republic and wanted war with austria
who were the jacobins?
the second largest party in the Legislative assembly that favored a paris centered republic
what did the gernidists and the jacobins have in common?
both oppossed kings and both wanted war
who were the coalition with and who were they agains?
with austria agianst france
when the constitution of 1791 ends, who gains control of the Legislative Assembly?
jacobins
what is the Legislative Assembly turned in to?
the National Convention
what do they to to France?
delcare it a Republic, 1st time, end of king
who was the most famous Jacobin leader?
Robespierre (most radical)
who placed Louis XVI on trial? and what happened?
National Convention, executed by the Guillotine
what was formed to serve as a war cabinet (12 members)? controlled by?
Committee of Public Safety; the jacobins
who was in charge of the reign of terror?
robespierre
Constitution of 1795?
strong executive; weak legislature
what takes the place of the National Convention?
the directory govermnent
who lead the italian campaign?
Napleon
what happens during the Egyptian Expedition?
Nap. is working for the directory and goes to egypt and finds the Rosetta Stone while trapped
who is the enemy of the French?
Admiral Horatio Nelson
What takes the place of the Directory Gov.? called for _ consuls
Consulate Governmen, 3
what was the 1st gov. that nap. worked for?
consulate
The Code Napoleon?
codification of french law (5)
the Concordate of 1801-
an agreement bw Nap. and church that ended the schism and restablished good realtions bw church and state
what prevented Nap. from invading Eng?
Battle of Trafalgar
the holy roman empire becomes
the confederation of the Rhine
the treaties of tilsit is signed by?
russia and prussia
the Continental System?
an economic blockade of england by france
British "orders in Council"
the british response to the continental system is to place a trade blockade on france
the Pininsular war?
spain and portugal
what battle was the effective end for Nap.?
Battle of Lepzig/ Battle of the Nations
What was Nap. biggest mistake?
The invasion of Russia
where is Nap. exiled to first?
Elba
what is the "100 days"
the return of Nap. from elba to france and his attempt to reclaim power
what is Nap. last battle?
Battle of Waterloo
where is he exiled to 2?
island of St. Helena