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212 Cards in this Set

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Who is the prayer leader that guides in prayer at mosque (Islam)?
imam
The population didn't support Leo III's order, and in 787 A.D., - .
a church council approved the use of icons
Islam: All areas of life placed under divine law given to Muhammad and recorded in - .
Quran
Georgia was once part of a kingdom known as - .
Colchis
Within the Islamic community, many people of Yathrib accepted Muhammad as - and - .
messenger of god and ruler of city
What was the small but prosperous town located near vital land and water routes?
Moscow
The Moscow Church used - instead of Greek or Latin in church.
Russian
What did the Eastern Slavs use for transportation? What did this result in?
rivers; became a trade area
Who was commanded to honor parents, show kindness to neighbors, protect orphans/widows, give generously to poor; murder, stealing, lying, and adultery condemned?
Islams, by the Quran
In the 1000's A.D., who won control of Armenia?
Seljuk Turks (then the Ottomans, Persians, and Russians)
When the Muslims defeated Makkans and won support of many - .
Arab groups outside Madinah
Acceptance of Eastern Orthodoxy tended to - Eastern Slavs from - .
isolate; the outside world
Moscow leaders stressed the importance of obedience to - and - .
czar and government
Who built the Hagia Sophia, "Holy Wisdom," in Constantinople, which was the largest most beautiful church in the Byzantine Empire?
Justinian
In which city did Muhammad laid foundation of Islamic state?
Madinah
In 532 A.D., a revolt of taxpayers in Constantinople threatened the government. Justinian was told to leave, but - told him to be strong. What was the result?
Theodora; never challenged again
Mu'awiyah wanted revenge for his uncle's murder and accused who?
Ali's supporters
Besides Roman traditions and Latin, what other language and culture did the Byzantine Empire preserve?
Greek
Which Islamic dynasty made Arabic the official language, minted currency, built roads, established postal routes.
Umayyads
The Byzantine empire was the - half of the divided Roman Empire.
eastern
The Quran forbade the use of - in winning converts, but if you died in a jihad you would immediately enter paradise.
force
In what year was Constantinople built?
330 A.D.
What is the word for the submission to the will of Allah
Islam
During Justinian's reign, the - in the east, under - , was a serious military threat.
The Sassanian Empire of Persia; Chosroes
Which city was encouraged by the development of a unique national style of icon painting/building construction?
Moscow
What are church officials like priests and bishops?
clergy
What city is still a center of government, religion and culture today for Russia?
Moscow
Who defeated the Russian armies and conquered the Slavs?
The Mongols
What brought Arabs into contact with other civilizations and changed Arab history?
Islam
In the 700's A.D., a dispute broke out over the use of - in the Christian religion in the Byzantine Empire.
icons
Which city, the center of Islam, became known as Madinat al-Nabi ('the city of the prophet') or Madinah?
Yathrib
What are people who carry a religious message called, in this case sent from Byzantine monastaries?
Missionaries
- of Moscow supported his people in their refusing to pay taxes
Ivan III
What were religious images called?
icons
One of Ali's most powerful rivals, - , governor of Syria, had an uncle who was a caliph (and was murdered).
Mu'awiyah
During Justinian's reign, the - thrived and achieved their distinct character.
arts, architecture
What kept empires in northern part of region from invading Arab lands?
Geographic remoteness
In 1204 A.D., who agreed to help the Venetians attack Constantinople, burning and destroying nearly every important thing in the city?
Christian soldiers
Why were the Arabs successful in conquering so many countries?
because their faith was unifying (one goal- spread Islam)
What did Byzantine literature focus on?
Salvation of the soul and obedience to God's will
When the Makkans invaded Yathrib, what did the Muslims do?
Muslims retaliated in self-defense
What was the most popular form of art in the Byzantine Empire, that portrayed saints and other religious figures?
Icons
To Muslims, Allah is same god as God of - and - .
Jews and Christians
What is another word for religious teachings?
Theology
What occurs in month of Ramadan (9th month in Muslim calendar)?
fasting
The conversion to Eastern Orthodoxy brought - to Kievan Rus.
Byzantine culture
Islam: Decreed all Muslims to place loyalty to Islamic community above loyalty to - .
tribe
What role did Byzantine emperors play in church affairs?
appointed church officials; defined the style of worship; used the wealth of the church for government purposes
While Muslim armies were fighting, rival groups fought for the what?
caliphate
What are temporary rulers, in this case describing the ranks that some educated women achieved?
Regents
In ancient times many Arabs were - , nomads who herded sheep/camel/goats and lived in tents of felt from camel/goat hair).
Bedouin
Who came from central Asia and defeated the Byzantines, forcing them to ask the Pope for help?
Seljuk Turks
Islam: Extended protection to Jews and Christians who accepted - .
the political authority of the Islamic community
What are pictures made of many tiny pieces of colored glass or flat stone set in plaster, a form of art the Byzantines excelled in?
Mosaic
Hajj is a visible expression of Muslim - .
unity
Who were the most successful missionaries who reasoned that people would be more inclinded to accept it if it was in their own language?
Cyril and Methodius
What happened when Ali asked Mu'awiyah to step down from his government position?
Mu'awiyah refused; they began fighting
What did the control of Kiev enable Oleg to do?
Dominate the water trade route
Islam: Disputes settled by whom?
Muhammad
Though women were supposed to live partly in seclusion, they gained some rights because of - .
Theodora
What peninsula is between Red sea and Persian Gulf?
Arabian
What were Emperor Leo III's supporters called?
Iconoclasts, "image breakers"
Who was the prophet of Islam, born in Makkah ~ AD 570?
Muhammad
What is another word for separation, in this case referring to the separation of the Eastern and Western Roman Catholic churches?
Schism
In which direction do you face when praying as an Islam?
towards Makkah
What was created in 850 A.D., to train scholars and lawyers for government jobs?
University of Constantinople
Which group of people viewed Camel/horse races, storytelling and poetry as entertainment?
Bedouin
Which missionary developed the Cyrillic alphabet for the Slavic people?
Cyril
When 60 Islamic families from Makkah to Yathrib, it was called - .
Hijrah (emigration)
The - were among the largest groups living in eastern Europe. They were passed the leadership of the Eastern Orthodox world from the Byzantines.
the Slavs
What was the result of Ali's death (regarding his son)?
his older son renounced his claim to the caliphate
The capital of Byzantine was - .
Constantinople
Merchants persecuted Muhammad and Muslims which persisted until threats against life caused him to seek help outside city, from - .
Yathrib, a small town north of Makkah
What were the religious communities formed around the late 300's A.D. throughout the Byzantine empire?
Monastaries
From sunrise to sunset, during Ramadan, they don't eat/drink, and during the last three days, there is a - .
3 day celebration for end of fast
What was the source of most Byzantine art?
Religious subjects
Quran presents basic moral values of what major religion?
Islam
After Rome's fall, who/what was regarded as heir to Roman power and traditions?
the Byzantine Empire
Under whose rule did a sophisticated urban civilization developed based on the people?
Harun al-Rashid
Justinian's wife, - , was beautiful, intelligent, and ambitious. She actively participated in government, and especially promoted -.
Theodora; women's rights
How did Ali die?
Ali was stabbed by a disillusioned follower
Eastern Slavs lived in villages made up of - .
Related family members
What were the Arab holy men called that denounced worship of idols and belief in one god- rejected Judaism and Christianity, preferring to find Arab form of monotheism?
Hanifs
Who seized the Byzantine lands in southern Italy in 1701 A.D.?
Normans
Makkah became spiritual capital of - and Madinah remained political capital
Islam
Which two kingdoms next to the Byzantine Empire also went through periods of prosperity and decline?
Armenia and Georgia
Who was the chief appointed by head of families in an Arab tribe, who was advised by council of elders?
Sheikh
Because of the marshy ground, the Mongols never conquered - .
Novgorod
Who was employed, as a teen, to a wealthy widow named Kadija (and later married her)?
Muhammad
Who was the first woman to hold the Byzantine Empire in her own right, and allowed the use of icons within reason?
Empress Irene
The Bedouins lived in tribes of what?
related families
At the height of the Byzantine Empire, it was ruled by - , the son of prosperous peasants from Macedonia.
Justinian
As it was an Islamic tradition, Muhammad experienced - , or 'vision'.
revelation
Which prince of Novgorod defeated the Swedes?
Alexander Nevsky
'successor:' one was chosen, not to replace Muhammed, but to preserve Islamic culture and tradition
Caliph
Who absorbed the Armenians and forced them to pay tribute?
The Persians
Why did Arabs value family ties?
ensured protection and survival in desert
What did the first Armenians do when they settled in present day Armenia?
intermarried with the local people; built towns
Who feared monotheistic worship would end pilgrimages to Makkah?
wealthy merchants and religious leaders
- , the youngest son of Nevsky, became the ruler of Moscow.
Daniel
Contacts with the Byzantines, Persians, and Ethiopians introduced the Arabs to what two monotheistic religions?
Judaism and Christianity
Which Armenian king was converted to Christianity?
Tiridates III; it was accepted by most Armenians
Whose armies aquired Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Persia, and Eqypt, then later the Perisan Empire?
Arab
Who built Constantinople?
Constantine
Mu'awiyah became the first caliph of the - dynasty
Umayyad
On what kind of landform was Constantinople located? What advantage did this give it?
peninsula; it gave Constantinople control over trade
How was God's messages expressed in the Quran?
stories, legends, teachings, and exhortations
What oath did the emperor/empress take upon being crowned in the Byzantine Empire?
defend the Christian faith
When Muhammad died, he left behind what 2 major achievements?
growth of monotheistic religion, equal to Judaism and Christianity; well organized political-religious community that increased Arab's power and influence
Who developed the Armenian alphabet?
Mesorb, an Armenian monk and scholar
What was the final authority in matters of faith and life style for Muslims?
Quran
The Byzantine citizens who had to pay the heaviest taxes were the:
a) laborers
b) herders
c) farmers
c) farmers. They were expected to support the government, since the basis of the Byzantine Empire was agriculture.
Muslims destroyed idols in Kaaba and turned shrine into - .
a place of worship for Muslim pilgrims
A - is an immense plain, here where the Slavs settled.
steppe
Law was separated from what in Islamic society?
religion
Who was called the Emperor Who Never Sleeps? Why?
Justinian; had a unquenchable thirst for knowledge
The Quran was written in what language?
Arabic
In 533 A.D. Justinian began to try to recreate the Roman Empire. After fighting many years, - .
resources ran low and they lost most of their territory
Muhammad established beliefs and practices for followers based on - .
revelations
In Byzantine religion, who was regarded as God's representatives on earth?
Emperors
In 747 A.D., non-Arab Muslims and anti-Umayyad joined together and overwhelmed who?
Umayyads
Justinian was most well known for his - , put together by scholars and now serve as the basis for most European legal systems.
law code
From sunrise to sunset, during Ramadan, they don't eat/drink, and during the last three days, there is a - .
3 day celebration for end of fast
After Georgia was conquered by - , it slowly declined as it was repeatedly conquered by the same people who conquered the Armenians.
the Mongols
Abu'l-'Abbas established what city?
Baghdad
What are the territories that Kieven Rus split up into?
Principalities
What were the followers of Ali called, who never accepted Mu'awiyah's rule?
Shiite
Before the late 900's A.D., the Eastern Slavs believed in what kind of religion?
Polytheism, nature gods..
Ali's son was - ; the Shiite reserved the caliphate for him.
Husayn
Who was one of the most important grand princes of Kiev?
Vladimir
Who heard a voice calling him to be apostle of Allah?
Muhammad
Who became Grand Prince after Vladimir died, established the first library, made a legal system, and made many allies by marrying his daughters and sisters to other countries?
Yaroslav
Who brought all of the Russian principalities under his rule?
Ivan III
Who was the first member of the Kievan nobility to accept Christianity?
Princess Olga
Who ordered Muslims to retrieve messages from wherever they could be found, which took 20 yrs?
Abu Bakr, Muhammad's successor
Who decided to abandon the old beliefs of Kiev and explore all different kinds of religion?
Prince Vladimir
Muhammad's messages, compiled by Abu Bakr was called the - .
Quran
Principalities were ruled by - .
princes
800's A.D.: Persian Muslims set up the - dynasty in Bukhara, which became a major commercial, religious, and educational center along with several other cities.
Samanid dynasty
The princes of the principalities were assisted by councils of wealthy merchants and landed nobles, called - .
boyars
The murders of Ali and Husayn led to a permant - in the Islamic world.
schism
What were the rulers of Kiev known as?
Grand Princes
According to Muslim tradition, angel Gabriel revealed divine messages to Muhammad over how many years?
22
The arrival of the Vikings at the Eastern Slavic area was recorded in what book?
Primary Chronicle
Sunni followed the traditions of Islam, but the Shiite aimed to - .
destroy the existing caliphate
Which fortress-village did Prince Oleg conquer?
Kiev
Since warfare was an important part of Bedouin life, they strongly believed in - .
retaliation
Which Viking leader was asked to reign over the Eastern Slavs?
Rurik
The Islamic pilgrimage to Makkah is called - .
hajj
What were the major occupations of Eastern Slavic men?
farmers and hunters
After Ivan III married Sophia (niece of the last Byzantine emperor) he took the title - .
Czar
Since the Eastern Slavs weren't warlike, they depended on the - for protection and leadership.
Vikings
To Muslims, Allah is same god as God of - and - .
Jews and Christians
What were the farm houses made of sturdy logs built by the Eastern Slavs called?
Izbas
New capital of the Umayyads
Damascus
The Roman Empire split in the year - .
395 A.D.
To Muslims, Allah is same god as God of - and - .
Jews and Christians
Who was Rurik's successor that conquered a fortress-village?
Prince Oleg
What was presented in Quran, discussing faith, prayer, alms-giving, fasting, and pilgrimage to Makkah?
5 Pillars of Islam
Which group of Slavs were the ancestors of the modern Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes?
South Slavs
Mu'awiyah nearly lost the battle, but then he - , and Ali refused to strike anyone bearing the word of God.
tied copies of the Quran to the tips of their lances
Which Slavic culture was greatly influenced by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches?
South Slavs
Abbasid Empire reached its height under Caliph - .
Harun al-Rashid
Which group of Slavs became today's Ukrainians, Russians, and Belarussians?
Eastern slavs
Muhammad's marriage relieved him of financial worries, allowing him to - .
reflect upon the meaning of life
Which group of Slavs was the largest group?
Eastern Slavs
What is the struggle to introduce Islam to other lands?
Jihad
Which group of Slavs were the ancestors of the people of modern day Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia?
West Slavs
How did Moscow expand its territory?
Using war and marriages
Which group of Slavs settled in the Balkan Peninsula, and were often exposed to the Byzantines?
South Slavs
What also emerged in other parts of the crumbling Abbasid Empire?
Independent states
What were church members who weren't clergy called?
laity
What was the code of law, an organization of Islamic moral rules by legal scholars and theology?
shari'ah
Which group of slavs lived in the marshlands, plains, and mountains of east-central europe?
West slavs
After Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 A.D., - stood alone as the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Muscovy
Who built an independent Armenian kingdom that was defeated and absorbed by the Romans?
King Tigran II
"Followers of the way;" majority of the Muslims.
Sunni
Who was John of Damascus?
A Byzantine theologian who defended the use of icons in the Christian church.
The first four caliphs- (elected for life; were close friends/relatives of Muhammed) were called what?
The Rightly Guided Caliphs
Tension heightened between the eastern and western Christian churches in the 700's A.D. when - .
the Germanic Lombards invaded Italy. The Pope appointed the leader of the Lombards emperor, something only the Byzantine emperor could do.
Faithful Muslims wrote down/memorized messages, but weren't compiled into one written collection until - .
after Muhammad died
What was the major Byzantine industry?
Weaving silk
Who was the first caliph (Islam)?
Abu Bakr
In 726 A.D., Byzantine Emperor - ordered all icons to be removed from the church, as it led to the worship of idols.
Leo III
Who established the Abbasid dynasty, and had a new city built, Baghdad, located on the banks of the Tigris River?
Caliph Abu'l-'Abbas
Under which leader did Georgia prosper?
Queen Tamara
What did the first four caliphs strive to do?
Sought to protect, spread Islam
Constantinople was known as - because of its emperors and language.
New Rome
Ivan III married - (niece of the last Byzantine emperor).
Sophia
In the Byzantine Empire, one walking through the streets would notice many people in heated discussions over - , which often led to riots.
religion; ex: the relationship of Jesus the Son to God the Father.
Who is the leader of the Orthodox church in the Eastern Slavic lands?
metropolitan
What religious group invaded Armenia, but failed to conquer the country?
Muslims
What was the Arab holy shrine in Makkah called?
Kaaba
Who borrowed a lot from the Byzantines, and created their civilization on the foundation of Byzantine religion, law and culture?
The Slavs
- ties replaced tribal ties in Arab trading towns.
Business
What was the center of social life for most Byzantines?
Family
Which dynasty improved conditions for other religious groups; they had to pay a tax, but they were tolerated (monotheism = similarity)?
Umayyads
How did the Byzantines feel about moving between the social classes?
Flexible
The Muscovites defeated the Mongols at the Battle of - .
Kulikovo
What were the books that were decorated with elaborate designs, beautiful lettering, and miniature paintings called?
Illuminated manuscript; made by the religious scholars of the Byzantine Empire
Who was called the Money Bag because he was trusted by the Mongols to collect taxes?
Daniel's son, Ivan III
What were the advantages to monastaries?
monks could lead a spritual life as well as help other people and setting a good example as a Christian
When Husayn returned to reclaim the caliphate, Umayyad troops - .
massacred all but the women and a young son in a battle
Who conquered Georgia, built new roads, and introduced their laws and customs?
The Romans
During which empire did lands conquered by the Umayyads broke free.
Abbasid Empire
After Justinian died, the Lombards took over Italy. The Slavs entered Constantinople, but it was the - who succeeded in conquering the Byzantine Empire.
Arabs
Which empire(s) threatened to take over Arab lands?
Byzantine and Persian
How should the people of Makkah live their lives?
in preparation for day of judgment
Arabs had common language, but lacked - and - to solve problems.
a sense of unity and central government
Islamic followers were expected to express devotion in prayers how many times a day?
five
Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford the trip is expected to make the pilgrimage how many times?
once in a lifetime at least
God measured worth of people by - and - .
devotion and good deeds