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224 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The Renaissance marks the birth of what?
modernity
Why were the city-states almost completely independent?
because of the weakness of church and empire
What produced a new culture of Renaissance and humanism?
commercial wealth and the new politics
The humanists clearly preferred what kind of learning?
the secular learning of ancient Greece and Rome
Why were the humanists the first modern historians?
because they could study and appreciate the past for its own sake and, to some degree, on its own terms
What were the sources for both esthetic and the political realism?
the cultural forms of ancient Greece and Rome
What was the new confidence of the Renaissance related to?
the cult of the individual
What three things did the reformation do?
1. shattered the religious unity of Europe
2. shattered the cornerstone of medieval culture
3. further weakened the principal authority in medieval society, the church
How did the Reformation further the growth of the modern state?
By strengthening the power of monarchs and magistrates at the expense of religious bodies
Protestantism helped do what?
free the state from subordination to religious authority
Tendencies in the Reformation provided a basis for challenging what?
monarchical authority
Protestantism contributed to the growth of what?
political liberty
The Reformation contributed to the creation of what?
an individualistic ethic
What was the counterpart of the intellectual individualism of the Renaissance humanists?
The religious individualism of the protestants
What did Marx argue about Protestantism?
that is can be explained by reference to the emergence of Western capitalism
What did Max Weber believe?
that protestantism enhanced the work ethic of capitalism, not vice versa
Weber saw the spirit of capitalism embodied in what?
the entrepreneur, the parvenu, and the self-made person
They make profit for what?
for the sake of making more profit
For Weber, why did Protestants make the best capitalists?
because predestination made them worldly ascetics
What are worldly ascetics?
Christians forced to find salvation without assistance and through activity in this world.
Who began to symbolize the most advanced forms of economic and creative life by 1700?
protestant entrepreneur and the protestant intellectual
The tension between the roman church and protestantism set what?
the former in the direction of opposing modernity
What changed the patterns of economic growth and society?
overseas exploration
The new discoveries and conquests brought about an increase in business which then helped what grow?
capitalism
Who was the model christian in northwestern Europe by 1750?
the enterprising businessman
What did the world economy now rely on?
1. market in Eastern spices
2. african slaves
3. american silver
The vast majority of the people lived where?
on land
what was their main business?
the production of primary goods- food, especially grain production, and wool
What is the subsistence level?
sometimes falling below subsistence during times of famine and disease
Those whose incomes rose were the rich, especially who?
the nouveaux riches (newly rich)
What was early modern europe comparable to?
an underdeveloped country today whose society consists of two main economic groups
what were the two economic groups?
1. a small, wealthy elite
2. a large and growing population that exists on the margin of subsistence and is racked by recurrent hunger and disease
What is capitalism?
A system of private enterprise where the main economic decisions are made by private individuals in their capacity as owners, workers, or consumers
Capitalism is also said to be what?
a system of free enterprise
What is free enterprise?
the basic decisions are not left only to individuals, but are also made in response to market forces
When goods and labors are scarce, prices and wages ____; when they are plentiful, prices and wages ____.
rise; fall
How did the vast majority of people live in the middle ages?
as self-sufficient subsistence farmers on the land
What was the basic factor that sustained the incentive to invest and reinvest?
the emergence of modern capitalism
What continued to climb that created the most powerful incentive of all to invest rather than to consume?
prices
Because of what, employers could pay lower and lower wages?
growing population and the resulting shortage of jobs
What acted as giant consumers, whose appetites throughout the early modern period were expanding?
governments
Why did merchants who supplied governments with different things prosper and reinvest?
because of the constancy and growth of government demand
What supplied cheap raw materials and cheap slave labor and served as markets for exports?
colonies
The state government also comprised what meant to increase investment?
state policies
These policies constitute what is known as what?
mercantilism
What is mercantilism?
The conscious pursuit by governments of courses of action supposed to augment national wealth and power
Governments increased economic activity by doing what 3 things?
1. employing the poor
2. subsidizing new industries
3. chartering companies to engage in overseas trade
The English saw that what should be made over the long run?
mercantilistic calculations of national wealth
Who argued that a country might import more than it exported in the short run and still come out ahead in the end?
Thomas Mun
Why did he think this?
because raw materials that are imported and then reprocessed for export would eventually yield a handsome profit
Mun was one of the first to discern the virtues of what?
Consumerism
What is consumerism?
a phenomenon that is still extremely important for achieving sustained economic growth
Demand can be ____.
created
Between 1660 and 1750, England became the world's first what?
consumer society
The stronger the stimulus to buy, the _____ the consumer worked.
harder
What 3 things combined to provide the foundation for sustained investment and for the emergence of mercantile capitalism?
1. price revolution
2. concentration of wealth in private hands
3. government activity
What french writer encountered some of the new ideas that were being discussed in parisian salons?
Voltaire
What did Voltaire learn from Newton?
the mathematical laws that govern the universe
What did Voltaire learn from Locke?
people should believe only the ideas received from the senses
His writings constituted an attack on what?
several aspects of 18th century french society
What did Locke believe about the mind at birth?
That it is tabula rasa; a clean slate
What were the two implications of tabula rasa?
1. If human beings did not come into this world with innate ideas, then they were not inherently sinful
2. a person's environment was the decisive force in shaping his or her character and intelligence
What did locke say about individuals and information?
they take the information produced by their senses and reflect on it
More treatises were written on what during the 18th century than in all previous centuries?
education
When did reform finally come?
after 1800 when industrialization put more women in the work force and required some literacy
What universities were by and large more proresive intellectually?
protestant than the catholic counterparts
Where di one go for the latest ideas during the Enlightenment?
the salons rather than the universities
What did the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 do to the Europeans?
stirred their imagination
What are legally defined groupings called that the 18th century French society was divided into?
Estates
What produced tensions that contributed to the Revolution?
Old Regime
What was the Old Regime based on?
privileges and inequalities sanctioned by law
What made the french catholic church a state within a state?
the powers and privileges
What 4 things did critic denounce the church for doing?
1. promoting superstition
2. obscurantism
3. impeding reforms
4. being more concerned with wealth and power than with the spiritual message of Jesus
What made up the first estate?
the french catholic church
What made up the second estate?
the nobles
What nonaristocratic enterprises were nobles becoming increasingly involved in?
1. banking
2. finance
3. commerce
4. industry
Nobles were the leading what?
patrons of the arts
Which nobles were the most prestigious?
nobles of the sword
what did they include?
families that could trace their aristocratic status back several centuries
Which were the second prestigious?
nobles of the robe
Who were these nobles?
nobles who had purchased judicial offices in the parlements and whose ranks included many former bourgeois
Who had a commonality in beliefs with the bourgeoisie?
the liberal nobles
What did the third estate comprise?
bourgeoisie, peasants, and urban laborers
What did the bourgeoisie consist of?
merchant-manufacturers, wholesale merchants, bankers, master craftsmen, doctors, lawyers, intellectuals, and government officials below the top ranks
A merchant felt that his occupations denied what?
him the esteem enjoyed by the nobility
The Bourgeoisie wanted to become what?
landowners
Why were the advancements of land harder for the Bourgeoisie to receive?
1. the high cost of purchasing an office
2. the limited number of new offices created
3. the resistance of nobles to their advancement
4. the hostility of the older nobility toward those recently ennobled
The social system clearly valued what?
birth over talent
How did most french peasants live?
in poverty
What would peasants do in their own homes in order to supplement their income?
find employment in their own homes
"The number of our ______ reduces us to ______."
children; desperation
Hatred of the manorial order and worsening in poverty sparked what?
a spontaneous and autonomous peasant revolution in 1789
The urban laboring class in this preindustrial age were paid by whom?
those they served
What made the administration of justice slow, arbitrary, and unfair?
The overlapping and conflicting law systems, based on Roman Law or customary feudal law
Servicing the debt on what placed an immense burden on the treasury?
War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War
Why were finances in France in shambles?
because it had an inefficient and unjust tax system
Why were nobles able to thwart royal will mainly through the parlements?
because many parlementaires were originally wealthy bourgeois who had purchased their offices from the state (nobles of the robe)
What did the parlements have the right to do?
remonstrate, pass judgement on the legality of, royal edicts
What is a solemn ceremony in which the monarch appeared before the court?
lit de justice
What could the king do if parlement stood firm in their resistance?
he could order their arrest
The financial problems let to what in July 1788?
a meeting of the Estates General
What did the American Revolution do?
gave practical expression to the liberal philosophy of the philosophes and also helped pave the way for the french revolution
The US showed that a nation could be established on the principle that what?
sovereign power derived from the people
The Bourgeoisie came to perceive nobles as what?
an obstacle to its advancement and the nation's progress
Just prior to 1789, what two groups were no longer differentiated?
nobles and bourgeois
What led nobles to press for the convening of the estates general?
The desire to institute crucial changes in french political life, say revisionists
Both reform-minded nobles and bourgeois held great hopes for what?
the regeneration of france and the advancement of liberty
The hopes of reformers clashed with the intentions of who?
many aristocrats
It is a war between _____ and ______.
the third estate and the two orders
What triggered the conflict between them?
the issue of representation in the estates general
What was the estates general?
a medieval assembly divided into the traditional orders of clergy, aristocracy, and commoners
What had worsened conditions for the peasantry?
the economic crisis of 1788-1789
What were the flames of the peasants' insurrection fanned by?
rumors that aristocrats were organizing bands of brigands to attack the peasants
What was the mythical army of brigands that never materialized called?
the great fear
The declaration affirmed what?
the dignity of the individual
Why has the declaration been called the death warrant of the old regime?
because it contrasted sharply with the principles espoused by an intolerant clergy, a privileged aristocracy, and a despotic monarch
What was the goal of the national assembly?
a constitution limiting the power of the king and guaranteeing all french citizens equal treatment under the law
When was this achieved?
September 1791
Who are the sans-culottes?
small shopkeepers, artisans, and wage earners
The discontent of these people propelled the revolution toward what?
radicalism
They insisted that it was the government's duty to guarantee them the "________"
right of existence
To reduce economic equality, what 2 things did the sans-culottes call for?
1. higher taxes for the wealthy
2. redistribution of land
What ultimately led to the destruction of the monarchy?
foreign invasion
Who regarded themselves as crusaders in the struggle against liberty and tyranny?
The Girondins
What did they hope to do?
spread revolutionary reforms to other lans to provoke a war of the people against kings
When was the monarchy abolished and the republic established?
September 21 and 22 1792
For what was the guerilla war waged by the Vendee?
religion, royalism, and their traditional way of life
Who were 'petit peuple'
commoners
Who replaced the Girondins as the dominant group in the National Convention in June of 1793?
Jacobins
Jacobins supported what?
temporary governmental controls to deal with the needs of war and economic crisis
What did this point help them win the support of?
sans-culottes
What is the 'Law of Maximum'
A law that the jacobins decreed to halt inflation and gain support of the poor; it fixed prices on bread and other essential goods
By demanding complete devotion to the nation, the jacobin phase of the revolution also heralded the rise of modern _______
nationalism
Who had served in the national assembly, was an active jacobin and earned the name 'the incorruptible'?
Maximilien Robespierre
Robespierre was a disciple of whom?
Rousseau
Robespierre considered what to be ultimate and infallible?
the national general will
To preserve republican liberty, the jacobins made what a deliberate government policy?
Terror
What was this time called?
The Reign of Terror
What was the new leadership who wanted no more of the jacobins or of robespierre's society?
Thermidoreans
During the french revolution, _____ not _____ determined the composition of the new ruling elite
property; noble birth
The French rev transformed the hereditary ____ into the _____.
dynastic state; modern state
For the government to be legitimate, it must derive its power from who?
the people
During the 19th century, the french rev served as a frame of reference for what 3 political constellations?
1. liberalism
2. socialism
3. conservatism
The french rev unleashed 3 potentially destructive forces identified with the modern state; what were they?
1. total war
2. nationalism
3. fanatic utopian mentality
The french rev also gave birth to modern what?
nationalism
The revolution attempted to do what?
reconstruct society on the basis of enlightenment thought
It insisted that society and the state have no higher duty than to do what?
promote the freedom and autonomy of the individual
The Revolution gave rise to whom who wanted to dominate Europe?
Napoleon
What was a political philosophy the rulers found to counter the Enlightenment ideology?
Conservatism
According to Edmond Burke, who had dragged France through the mire of revolution?
fanatics armed with abstract ideas divorced from historical experience
What were the leading conservative theorists on the continent called?
reactionaries
who were they?
joseph de maistre and vicomte louis de bonald
Progress through what became the revolutionaries' faith?
reason
To conservatives, evil was held in check by what 3 institutions?
1. monarchy
2. church
3. aristocracy
In the conservatives' view, the revolutionaries had done what?
reduced people and society to abstractions divorced from their historical settings
In politics, _____ is the best teacher and _______ the best method of procedure
experience; prudence
For conservatives, what two things were the only legitimate sources of political authority?
God and history
What did conservatives believe about community?
individuals must live in community because if alone, a person would be selfish, unreliable, and frail
What did conservatives see as the basis of civil society?
religion
The political philosophy of the bourgeoisie was most commonly what?
liberalism
liberalists strove to alter what?
the status quo
What are the immediate historical roots of liberalism?
17th century england
What was the liberals' primary concern?
enhancement of individual liberty
Liberals said that when people acted from self-interest they did what?
worked harder and achieved more
Democracies face an ever-present danger that people will what?
surrender their liberty to a central government if it promises to provide them with property and other advantages
What flowed logically from liberalism?
the essential ideals of democracy
In contrast to liberals, who feared the masses, french radicals did what?
trusted the common person
What 2 things did radicals do?
1. attacked the hereditary aristocracy
2. fought corruption
who shared the conviction of other enlightenment thinkers that superstition, intolerance, and despotism had interfered with human progress in the past?
Thomas Paine
Who thought that human beings are motivated solely by self-interest, which they define in terms of self-pain?
Jeremy Bentham
What principal did he offer as a guide to reformers?
utility
What is utilitarianism?
a philosophy that we are to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number
What were Bentham and his followers called?
philosophical radicals
Socialists demanded the creation of a new society based on what?
cooperation rather than on competition
Early socialists were also _____
romantics
Who argued that scientific knowledge could bind the society of his time, just like christianity caused unity in the middle ages?
Saint-Simon
Who sought to create small communities that would let men and women to enjoy life's simple pleasures?
Charles Fourier
What were these communities called?
phalansteries
Who resolved to improve the lives of his employees and show that it was possible to do so without destroying profits?
Robert Owen
What was Robert Owen's philosophy?
healthier, happier workers produced more than the less fortunate ones
Nationalists contend that one's highest loyalty and devotion should be given to what?
the nation
What 2 ideas were crucial in fashioning a nationalist outlook?
1. people possess unlimited sovereignty
2. they are united in a nation
Who was a romantic poet that helped awaken the nationalistic feeling and conceived the idea of the volksgeist (the spirit of the people)?
Johann Gottfried Herder
What poet urged Germans to unite against Napoleon in his writing?
Ernst Moritz Arndt
Nationalists said that there would be no liberty is what?
people were not free to rule themselves in their own land
Liberalism grew out of ________; nationalism derived from _______.
the rational tradition of the west; the emotions
The transition from laissez-faire liberalism to a more socially conscious and democratic liberalism is seen in the thought of whom?
John Stuart Mill
Who were Thomas Hill green, dG Ritchie, JA hobson and LT hobhouse?
the leading late-19th century figures in the shaping of a new liberal position in Britain
Committed to a philosophy of extreme individualism, who never abandoned the view that the state was an evil and oppressive institution?
Herbert Spencer
What fueled Europe's accumulation of wealth?
the resources of the New World and of Africa
What were the two major changes in agriculture with the population boom?
1. a 'green revolution' of new crops
2. new and different ways of utilizing land and labor
What was responsible for much of the rural poverty?
enclosure
What three areas did the agricultural revolution bring change?c
1. landholding
2. soil usage
3. animal husbandry
Who was first to industrialize?
britain
What made it hard for the french to develop or maintain the optimism and the willingness to take risks that contribute to economic development?
political instability
What played a vital role in Britain's economic development?
private enterprise
what kind of production was the first industry to grow at unprecedented rates?
cotton
What invention allowed weavers to double their output?
John Kay's flying shuttle
what enabled the operator to work several spindles at once powered only by human energy?
James Hargreaves's spinning jenny
What caused the cotton industry's expansion?
social and economic demand
Who invented the steam engine?
James Watson
In the beginning, what firms dominated industry?
family
The banks were cautious and diversified their investments which caused there to be a limit to what?
the number of industries able to borrow substantial amounts of capital
What was still the principal form of wealth and the source of social and political power?
landed property
How did most of the shift from rural to urban living in the west actually occur in the twentieth century?
with the spread of industry
The outmost ring of the city was preferred by which class?
the middle
Wherever industrial wealth became more important, the middle class gained what?
political power and social respectability
Industrialization sharpened distinctions between which 2 classes?
middle and laboring
In france, angry workers dropped wooden shoes called sabots into the works to slow machinery giving us the word ____
sabotage
What were artisans?
the largest group of city workers until the 1850s
Who were the third group of urban workers?
servants
Why were a wife and children an asset for factory workers?
because they worked
Who was the first nation to face the worsening condition of the poor?
britain
What did many leaders believe would end distress?
increasing economic capacity
What were the English Factory Acts?
a series of measures that limited the hours of women and children who labored in mines and factories
In the following decades, many Germans turned to who for ship in the struggle for unification?
authoritarian prussia
How was the Hapsburg dynasty held together?
by the reigning Hapsburg dynasty, its army, and its bureaucracy
The Hapsburgs prevented what?
the disintegration of the empire
What weakened the revolutionaries in central Europe?
class divisions
_______ intoxication entails a variety of bx and physiological symptoms: bx symptoms include euphoria, anxiety, paranoia, impaired judgment, and social withdrawal: physiological symptoms include increased appetite, dry mouth, and conjunctival infection
cannabis intoxication
What 3 things determined behavior much more than logical consciousness?
impulses, drives, and instincts
What is the problem of irrationalism?
manifold
Who was the principal figure in the dethronement of reason and the glorification of the irrational?
Friedrich Nietzsche
What did Nietzsche say was a victim of the excessive development of the rational faculties at the expense of will and instinct?
modern bourgeois society