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101 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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What is the testis determining factor
XY Gonad
this hormone causes the mullerian duct to regress
Antimullerion hormone
without this the wolffian duct regresses
max # of oogonia produced by mitotic division
7 mil
what becomes the primary oocyte
prophase of 1st meoisis
what happens to the # of primary oocytes as one ages
it decreases from 1-2 mil to 400 thousand just before puberty
fundamental repro unit
single ovarian follicle, composed of one oocyte, surroundrd by endocrine cells
these superficial cells contain no aromatose, have only LH receptors, and can get LDL in blood
thecal cells
interior cells that have aromatase but no 17x hydroxylase
granulosa cells
how do granulosa cells get cholesterol
do novo synthesis, have both LH & FSH rec, which add progesterone to 17x progesterone
what is formed from testoterone if androgen levels are high
estrogen has ____ affinity for estradiol receptors while progesterone has a ___ affinity for estrogen
incre, decr
what cells regulate ovulation
granulosa cells
this sets up pseudoinflammatory response, prostaglandin endoperoxidase synthase in granulosa cells
LH surge
stimulates release of plasminogen activator from granulosa cells-plasminogen to plasmin
FSH some LH
this cycle is controlled by gonadotropins, gonadal hormones
menstrual cycle
this cycle consists of menstruation, proliferative and secretory phases
endometrial cycle
3 phases of ovarian cycle and length of each phase
follicular phase- 15 days, ovulatory phase 1-3 days, luteal phase 13 days
what increases to stimulate an LH surge
neg feedback on ____ reduces LH and FSH
during this phase LH, FSH, and GnRH are all increased
proliferative phase
these 2 hormones casuses changes in FSH during the ovarian cycle
activin and inhibin
when does the luteal phase occur
a couple days after ovulation
what happens to progesterone during the follicular phase
increases significantly then decreases
______ provides necessary implantation of ovum and maint of zygote until placenta can take over
corpus luteum
what happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization does not occur
it will regress in about 14 days
what is another term for Avascular scar
corbus albicans
when is the endometrium at its thickest point
ending of secretory phase
enzyme that converts cholesterol to pregnenolone
enzyme that converts pregnenolone to DHEA
17x hydroxylase
enzyme that converts E2 to E3
This E form occurs during pregnancy to decrease prescence of estrogen
E3 estriol
this estrogen occurs mostly in the menopausal female
E1- estrone
this estrogen is the primary form
this hormone form leads to fat desposition an men and women (hips and thighs)
Does estrogen cause osteoblastic or osteoclastic activity
what happens to sensitivity of steroids as one ages
you get a reduction in sensitivity
what is the genomic effect of estradiol
NOS synthesis which produces NO and also upreg estrogen and progesterone
this pregesterone rec antagonist causes abortion and also inh hyperhydrocortisolism
how does mifepristone work
it inh estrogen rec synthesis causing endometrial proliferation during luteal phase
diff between M & F in mitotic proliferation
in Males spermatogenesis proliferate only after puberty, primary spermatocyte produces 4 mature spermtazoa, and the spermatids undergo substansial defferentiation
state of cyclic repro func, beginning with pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion during REM sleep
some factors that determines age of puberty
genetics, nutrition, geographic location(further from equator-earlier onset, light exposure, fat deposition, and exercise
In the US does sexual maturation occur earlier in black girls or white girls with the same socioeconomic status
What are the diff between the M and F sexual response
no ejac in the female and women don't require a refractory time before beginning excitation again
what is the % of female sexual dysfunc
45% ages 16-50 yrs
what characteristics might help one to think they might be ovulating
increase in temp and diff in mucus discharge from vagina
how does progestins prevent implantation
cervical mucus thickens, inh motility, decr transport of ova and sperm
What is norplant
implant contraception, norprogestins which lasts 5 yrs
how does depoprovera work
inh ovulation and implantation
this postcoital contaceptive is an oral contraceptive that is given withinn 72 hrs of unprot intercourse
RU 486
onset occurs at 51 yrs-avg, with a obsolescence of ovaries, no estradiol prod, ova only occasional secondary follicle, few primary follicles
what is HERS
Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study
was there an increase in CHD endpoints c HRT or placebo over 4 yrs
What did the women's initiative conclude
HRT regimen should not be initiated or continued for primary prrevention of CHD
anti-estrogen SERM that is being used in breast cancer
this weak estrogen in long term uses cause an increase in cervical cancer because of low tonic secretion
smooth muscl tumor -fibroids in uterus estrogen dependent
aberrant prescence of endometrial tissue occuring outside the uterine cavity, which responds to E2 during menstrual cycle causing pain and infertility
how is endometriosis treated
give GnRH continously, which downregulates GnRH rec but causes hypoestrogenism
What causes toxic shock syndrome in the menstrual patient
tampons and barrier contraceptives
what genetic state causes a misassigned gender
XY, deficient in testosterone prod
what are the clinical manifestations in Women
galactorrhea in 30-80%, menstrual irregularity and infertility
cond that causes increase in hair on chin or mustache and acne
hormone that is detected c in 8 days of contraception in maternal blood and urine(secreted by blastocysts)
hCG is entrained by ___- 11-22 min pulses, no E2 response element in promoter, so no neg feedback like LH and FSH
immunosuppressant, stimulates progesterone and E2, maintains corpus luteum beyond normal lifespan, stimulates essential DHEA-S in fetal zone of adrenal cortex
func of hCG
how many days does it take for blastocyte to reach uterus? To implant?
4-5 days, 5-7 days
cytotrophoblasts and synctiotrophoblasts form
placental-hypothalmic pituatary axis
this hormone is most imp for establishment and sustenance of fetus
inh uterine contractions
fetal gut, placenta, kidney and endocrine gland that helps keep the fetus alive
What are some maternal responses to pregnancy
increased cardiac output(40%) and blood vol(30%)
______ index of fetal well being
initially produced by corpus luteum in first 5-6 wks which is stimulated bu hCG
stimulates growth of uterine myometrium and ductal tissue of breast
early maternal response to pregnancy
plasma Na decreased despite Na retention, dec osmolarity
what happens at about 10 wks (maternal response)
thirst and AVP not suppressed until reach new threshold-new osmostat
what is made by the placenta to get AVP levels to the same as prepregnant levels
increased vasopressinase
when does insulin increase during pregnancy
3rd month
occurs in 70% of pregnancies, with an onset of 4-8 wks of gestation, assoc c more favorable outcome
morning sickness
what causes pregnancy induced HTN
preclampsia and eclampsia
what are the 2 func of amniotic fluid
mech bufferand mech by which fetus excretes wastes
what is phase 3 of parturition
postpartum, involution of uterus
phase 2 of parturition
time of delivery of fetus to delivery of placenta
phase 0 of parturition
conception to beginning of labor, quiescent uterus
phase assoc c dec c AMP, cGMP, MLCK activity which is due to progesterone, relaxin, prostacyclin, NO
Phase 0
upreg of contraction asoc proteins, connexin 43, cervical softening due to rearrangemnet of collagen fibers
Phase 1
what does connexin 43 do?
increase gap junctions 50x's increase myometrial oxytocin receptor
delivery of fetus and placenta
phase 2
___ most imp in postpartum bleeding and involution of the uterus
weak contractions which begin about 1 month before labor
Braxton Hicks contractions
what causes labor pains
ischemia of uterine muscle in early stage, then stretch if cevix, perineum, vagina
most women receive ____ following labor to prevent bleeding
when is pitocin most imp
phase 3
what inh lactation
precipitious drop in estrogen and progesterone after delivery
what does lactation inh
FSH, LH and interferes c repro func
what causes mastitis
S aureus, S epidermidis, strep gram neg rods or candida albicans
inability to conceive after 12 mon of unprot sex
rate of infertility
14% women ages 15-44
decreases in these hormones causes infertility
FSH, LH, E2 c or s increase in prolactin