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32 Cards in this Set

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What is the scientific name of vitamin B1?
Thiamine
What is the biologically active form of vitamin B1 and what does it do?
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), it assists in the cleavage of bonds adjacent to a carbonyl group, such as the decarboxylation of α-keto acids and in the transfer of active acetylaldehyde groups between carbon atoms.
Which enzymes are TPP-dependent?
α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
pyruvate dehydrogenase
pyruvate decarboxylase
transketolase
What does dietary deficiency of vitamin B1 lead to and how are vitamin B1 deficiencies in general?
Beri-beri; they are mostly neurological in nature
What is an electron sink?
A place for the e- to hide until they encounter their desired partner.
What is the common name for vitamin B2?
Riboflavin
Riboflavin is otherwise known as ?.
Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)
Transfer of an adenosine monophosphate to FMN yields ?.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
What are the biologically active forms of Vitamin B2?
flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
Why are the flavins more versatile?
Because they can accept either one or two electrons.
In what do flavins participate in?
Electron transfer
In what biological process do flavins participate?
They serve as electron carriers in oxidative phosphorylation.
List the water-soluble vitamins.
-Thiamine (b1)
-Riboflavin (B2)
-Niacin
-Biotin
-Cobalamin (B12)
-Pyridoxine (B6)
-Ascorbic Acid
What are the biologically active forms of niacin?
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+)
How many electrons do NAD+ and NADP+ accept?
2 e-
NAD+ is the prevalent oxidation state in what type of reactions?
Oxidation reactions usually assoicated with catabolic processes.
NADPH is the prevalent oxidation state in what type of reactions?
NADPH is the major oxidation state in anabolic reactions.
What is pellagra?
(dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia) caused by Niacin deficiency
Dehydrogenases use a conserved structural motif called the ? to bind NAD or NADP.
Rossman fold
What is the function of biotin?
Biotin in a coenzyme in carboxylation reactions, where it serves as a carriers of active CO2.
What is the scientific name of vitamin B12
Cobalamin
What is cobalamin's function?
Cobalamin is typically the cofactor in enzymes where a substituted alkyl group is exchanged for hydrogen on an adjacent carbon without water accessing the hydrogen atom.
Which two enzymes require cobalamin as a cofactor?
methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
methionine synthase
What is required for B12 absorption through the small intestine?
A glycoprotein called "intrinsic factor"
Failure to produce "intrinsic factor" results in what condition?
Pernicious anemia which results in reduced production of erythrocytes, reduced levels of hemoglobin, and severe, progressive impairment of the CNS.
What is the common name for Pyridoxine?
Vitamin B6
What is the active form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and what is it used for?
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is used by all aminotransferases as a prosthetic group in their reactions.
What type of kinetics do aminotransferases exhibit? Describe.
These enzymes exhibit ping-pong kinetics in which one substrate binds and departs, allowing the second substrate to bind and depart as the final product.
Elevated levels of what enzyme is indicative of a heart attack?
Eleveated levels aminotransferases are indicative of this condition.
What is the active form of Vitamim C?
Ascorbate
What is the function of ascorbate?
This vitamin is an antioxidant that keeps the non-heme iron of prolyl-4-hydroxylase in its reduced form.
What may happen without vitamin C?
Without this vitamin, the non-heme iron of prolyl-4 hydroxylase remains oxidized and proline hydroxylation is abolished, leading to collagen instability and connective tissue problems typical of scurvy.