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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How does Cl affect fish?
1.0 - causes problems
.37 - max. fish can tolerate
.25 - only hardest fish can survive
What problems do phosphates create in a pond?
Algae grows.
How much Cl is need to kill bacteria in water?
< .5 mg/l
Give the hardness range:
Soft Water _____
Moderately Hard Water _____
Hard Water _____
Very Hard Water _____
0 - 60
61 - 120
121 - 180
181 +
Do plants produce CO2?
What causes limestone to dissolve?
water turned acid by CO2
How do nitrates enter a body of water?
Rain water washes it into waterways
- farm fert. runoff/lawn
What does pH stand for?
Potential for hydrogen ion concentration
Why are nitrates so short-lived?
B/c they're quickly converted into nitrates by bacteria
Below ____ ppm all fish will die
Good fish waters average ____ ppm dissolved oxygen
Fish can usually tolerate CO2 levels up to ____ ppm.
Name five ways in which phosphates enter a stream.
1.) Pesticides
2.) Detergents
3.) Soils
4.) Phosphate rich rocks
5.) dead animals
How much oxygen will a fish use at 5 degrees Celsuis?
60 mg of O2 per hour
How much oxygen will a fish use at 25 degrees Celsuis?
300 mg. of 02 per hour
How much phosphate is necessary to accelerate the eutrophication process in lakes?
Eutrophication - enrichment of a body of water by nutrients
.25 mg/l
If algae grows to excessive levels in a stream, what may happen to the aquatic life?
Aquatic life will diminish from reduced O2 levels.
What disease is caused in humans if exposed to nitrogen?
Blue Baby
What are trihalomenthanes
Compounds made from free Cl mixed w/ decaying materials?
What two minerals are responsible for hard water?
Calcium + magnesium
H2SO4+CaCO3 = ?
H2CO3+SO3 = ?
Name several factors that would be responsible for a decrease in the oxygen levels of a stream?
-Overfertilization by nitrates + phosphates.
-Too many cloudy days
-Too much bacteria
Metaphosphate polyphosphate
used for treating boiler waters
organic phosphate
important in nature, and may result from breakdown of organic pestides
What problems will be created if phosphates enter drinking water?
Nothing really, unless high concentration
Why are carbonates very important to a stream?
Buffer acids
Why is soft water a serious problem for humans?
increases chance of heart attack
What effect would nitrates have on phytoplankton?
It simulates their growth
What is chlorine?
A greenish-yellow poisonous gas that dissolves easily in water
What is organic nitrogen?
Found in proteins and other compounds
What substances become very toxic to fish if they are living in an acid environment?
Aluminum, lead, or mercury;
Al, Pb, Hg
What is the chemical symbol for calcium carbonate?
What is the desirable pH range for trout?
6.5 - 8.6
Co2 chemically combines with water to produce _____________?
carbonic acid
What is the source of CO2 from water in a stream?
Resperiation from plants
What is the natural source for water hardness?
Limestone rock dissolve by water
ppm = ?
Which water is best to wash clothes in/
Amt of phos-phos in most uncotaminated lakes
.01 - .03 mg/l

phos-phos = phosphate - phosphorus
Describe problems associated with CO2+ H2O -> H2CO3
This just makes things worse. pH + acid -> pH lowers and becomes more acidic.
What si the recommended max of phosphate for rivers and streams
.1 mg/l
What is the chemical symbol for Carbon Dioxide?
CO 2
CO - comes from burning oil, gas, etc.
Why is soft water a serious problem for aquatic life?
Soft water makes nonmetals more poisonous
Name three ways that nitrates enter a stream.
1.) Car exhaust
2.) Leaking septic tanks
3.) Animal Waste
How does oxygen get into streams?
Diffusion, rapids, photosyn.
What is synergism?
When 2 or more sub. combine and produce effects greater than their sum
Why do lakes tend to become more acidic as they age?
Organic material builds up and forms carbonic acid
Where int he body are the nitrates converted to the dangerous nitrites?
Human Intestine
Describe the chemical properties for CO2.
CO2 is an odorless, colorless gas.
When are CO2 levels the highest? Why?
at night. Because that's when plants preform respiration
Why is soem phosphorus needed in a strea?
It stimulates growth of plankton + animals and water plants.
found in sewage
Why might chlorine be present in a stream?
textiles; paper mills; swimming pools; sewage treat. plate
What removes CO2 from water in a stream/
Each unit change on the pH scales actually is a ____ fold change in concentration
What disease is caused in fish if nitrites are present?
Brown Blood Disease
How much of the worlds oxygen is produced by phytoplankton
What is inorganic nitrogen?
gaseous nitrate, nitrite, NO CARBON
Describe chlorines chemical properties?
pH lowers - Cl more poisonous
What pH range is best for fish?
CO2 + H20 = ?
H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
Why are trihalomenthanes an important consideration?
They are a cancerous to humans
Describe how plants produce CO2
Respiration at night