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53 Cards in this Set

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What are diuretics used for?
Treatment of hypertension
Mobilization of Edematous Fluid
Where does filtration happen in the kidney?
The Glomerulus
What are the predominant solutes that are reabsorbed?
Sodium and Chloride
Filtration is a _____ process while reabsorption is a ____ process.
Nonselective
Active
Where is the largest amount of ions reabsorped?
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
The greatest amount of ions are mainly reabsorped (last/first) while only a smaller amount are reabsorped (last/first).
First
Last
How do diuretics work?
Blockage of sodium and chloride reabsorption which prevents the passive reabsorption of water
Drugs whose action are (earlier/later) in the nephron have the greatest diuresis.
Earlier
What is hypovolemia?
Excessive Fluid Loss
Which diuretics are the most effective?
High Ceiling (Loop) Diuretics
Where do high ceiling diuretics act?
Thick segment of the ascending limb
What is the prototype of the high ceiling diuretics?
Furosemide
Furosemide is a ______.
High Ceiling Diuretics
Furosemide is used for ____.
Situations that require rapid mobilization of fluid
What are the adverse effects of High ceiling diuretics?
Hypoatremia (Loss of sodium)
Hypochloremia
Dehydration
Hypotension
Hypokalemia
Ototoxicity
Hyperglycemia
Dehydration can promote a _____ and ____.
thrombosis
embolism
What are some drug interactions with Furosemide?
Digoxin
Ototoxic drugs
Lithium
NSAIDs
What is the prototype of the thiazides?
Hydrochlorothiazide
Hydrochlorothiazide is a ____.
Thiazide Diuretic
Where do thiazides work?
Early segment of the distal convoluted tubule
Thiazides have (more/less) efficacy than high ceiling diuretics.
less
The difference in the adverse effects of thiazides and high ceiling diuretics are ____.
Lack of ototoxic actions
The similarities between the adverse effects of thiazides and high ceiling diuretics are ___.
Hypoatremia
Hypochloremia
Dehydration
Hypokalemia
Hyperglycemia
What are the contraindications for thiazides?
Lithium
Digoxin
NSAIDs
What are Potassium Sparing Diuretics used for?
Counteract potassium loss caused by thiazides or high ceiling diuretics
What is the prototype of the Potassium Sparing Diuretics?
Spironolactone
Spironolactone is a _____.
Potassium Sparing Diuretic
What are the adverse effects of Spironolactone?
Hyperkalemia
Endocrine Effects
How does Spironlactone work?
Blocks the action of aldosterone
What is Triamterene?
Potassium Sparing Diuretic
What is the difference between Spironolactone and Triamterene?
Triamterene is a direct inhibitor of the Na/K exchange while Spironolactone blocks the action of aldosterone
Triamterene lacks endocrine effects
What does Aldosterone do?
Increases the action of Potassium secreting/ Sodium Reabsorbing pumps in Collecting Tubule
Amiloride is similar to _____.
Triamterene
Mannitol is a _____.
Osmotic Diuretic
How does mannitol work?
Osmotic force that inhibits passive absorption of water
Mannitol is given ___.
Parentally
What are the uses of Mannitol?
Prophylaxis of Renal Failure
Reduction of Cranial and Ocular Pressure
What are adverse effects of Mannitol?
Edema
Volume Contraction is a (decrease/increase) in Total Body Water while Volume Expansion is a (decrease/increase) in TBW.
decrease
increase
Isotonic change in TBW have a change in the ___ but not the ___.
volume
osmolarity
Dextrose solutions are the equivalent of water alone.
T or F
True
Isotonic solutions are ___ sodium chloride.
0.9% sodium chloride
Respiratory Alkalosis is caused by ___ and Respiratory Acidosis is caused ___.
Hyperventilation
Hypoventilation
Metabolic Alkalosis is ___.
Increase in pH and bicarbonate content of plasma
___ stimulates potassium uptake into cells.
Isulin
What is used to treat hypokalemia?
Potassium salts
What is the sign of hyperkalemia?
Disruption of electrical activity of the heart
What is the sign of hypomagnesemia?
Muscle excitability
Where is most of the blood in the body?
Venous system
An increase in ___ will increase stroke volume while an increase in ____ will decrease stroke volume.
Preload
Afterload
What do Natriuretic Peptide do?
Protect the cardiovascular in the event of volume overload
What is the most important determinant of venous return?
Systemic pressure filling
The ___ is used for short-term BP regulation.
Baroreceptor Reflex