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43 Cards in this Set

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hard water
water that contains high amounts of minerals such as calcium and magnesium
soft water
water that has been filtered to replace some of the minerals with sodium
intracellular fluid
fluid within the cells composed of water plus concentrations of potassium and phosphates
interstitial fluid
fluid between the cells containing concentrations of sodium and chloride
extracellular fluid
all fluids outside cells including interstitial fluid, plasma, and watery components of body organs and substances
functions of water
-provides shape and rigidity to cells
-helps regulate body temperature
-acts as a lubricant
-cushions body tissues
-transports nutrients and waste products
-acts as a solvent
-provides a source of trace minerals
-participates in chemical reactions
insensible perspiration
water lost invisibly through evaporation from the lungs and skin
solvent
the liquid in whcih another substance (the solute) is dissolved to form a solution
reactant
a substance that enters into and is altered during a chemical reaction
homeostasis
state of physiologic equilibrium produced by a balance of functions and of chemical composition within an organism
solute
a substance dissolved in another substance
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone secreted by the pituitary galnd in response to low fluid levels; affects kidneys to decrease excretion of water; also called vasopressin
aldosterone
a homrone sereted y the adrenal gland in response to sodium levels in kidneys; affects kidneys to balance fluid levels as needed
fluid volume deficit (FVD)
the state in which a person experiences vascular, cellular, or intracellular dehydration
polyuria
excessive urination
fluid volume excess
the state in whcih a person experiences increased fluid retention and edema
edema
excess accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces caused by seepage from the circulatory system
major minerals
essential nutrient minerals required daily in amounts of 100 mg or higher
trace minerals
essential nutrient minerals required daily in amounts less than or equal to 20 mg
parathormone
a hormone that raises blood calcium levels; secreted by the parathyroid gland in response to low blood calcium levels
calcitriol
active vitamin D hormone that raises blood calcium levels
calcitonin
hormone that reacts in response to high blood levels of calcium; released by the special C cells of the thyroid gland
calcium rigor
a condition of hardiness or stuffness of muscles when blood calcium levels get too high
calcium tetany
a condition of spasms and verve excitability when blood calcium levels get too low
hydroxyapatite
a natural mineral structure of bones and teeth
hemoglobin
oxygen-transporting protein in red blood cells
myoglobin
oxygen-transporting protein in muscle
heme iron
dietary iron found in animal foods of meat, fish, and poultry
nonheme iron
dietary iron found in plant foods
hemosiderosis
a condition in which too much iron is stored in the body
pica
a condition characterized by a hunger and appetite for nonfood substances
hemochromatosis
a genetic disorder causing excessive dietary iron absorption
goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by iodine deficiency
thyrotoxicosis
iodine-induced goiter
fluorosis
a condition of mottling or brown spotting of the tooth enamel caused by excessive intake of fluoride
primary extracellular electrolytes
sodium (Na+/cation) and chloride (Cl-/anion)
primary intracellular electrolyte
potassium (K+/cation)
major minerals in the human body
-calcium
-chloride
-magnesium
-phosphorus
-potassium
-sodium
-sulfur
trace minerals in the human body
-chromium
-copper
-fluoride
-iodine
-iron
-manganese
-molybdenum
-selenium
-zinc
bioavailability
refers to the level of absorption of a consumed nutrient and is of nutritional concern
water composition
adult: 50-60%
newborn infant: 75-80%
minerals
-inorganic substances
-electrically charged, special affinities for water
-not broken down in the body; indestructible
-cofactors of metabolic processes
binders
substances in plant foods that combine with minerals to form indigestible compounds, making them unavailable for our use