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13 Cards in this Set

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What is "treadmilling" of actin subunits?
Subunits add much more readily to (+) end, and are lost more readily at (-) end.
How are actin filaments organized?
1. Meshworks
2. Bundles
a. contractile bundles
b. microvilli
What can muscular dystrophy be traced to?
Breaks in the cell membrane associated with defective dystrophin/meshwork linkage.
What do MAPs do?
Microtubule=associated proteins bind to outer surface of the MT and control MT structural organization or operate like motors to effect movement of MTs or associated vesicles.
How are Microtubules anchored to the MTOC (microtubule organizing center)?
(-) ends at MTOC, radiate out to periphery of cell and (+) ends terminate freely in periphery.
What are the functions of Intermediate filaments?
Provide structural scaffolding inside the cell - no known role in motility.
-Toughen epithelia
-Support junctional complexes
-Maintain cell shape,s upport organelles, support axons )in conjunction with MTs)
What are five important types of IMFs and where are they found?
1) Keratin - epithelial cells
2) Vimentin - mesenchymal (typically connective tissue)
3) Desmin - muscle
4) Neurofilaments - nerve axons
5) Nuclear lamins - nuclear env
How are IMFs anchored?
Anchored by attachments to the nuclear envelope and the plasma membran (desmosomes and mehidesmosomes).
What is the Basal Lamina?
Support layer where junctions are attached.
What are the 5 types of junctions found in an epithelial cell?
1) Tight
2) Adherens (Adhesion)
3) Desmosome
4) Gap
5) Hemidesmosome
What are the two types of adhesion junctions?
1) Focal
2) Belt - actin filament bundles contain myosin
What is the difference b/n desmosomes and hemidesmosomes?
Desmosomes use transmembrane proteins to anchor IFs that are in the cadherin family, whereas hemi's proteins are integrins.
To what ends (+, -) do kinesin and dynein move vesicles along MTs?
Kinesin moves vesicles towards (+) ends, dynein towards (-) ends.