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73 Cards in this Set

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During the late colonial period in the Americas, this movement emphasized the cultural importance of American-born colonists, usually of European descnt.
Nativism (or creolism/criolloism)
Noting the presence of a nativistic mindset, this British-American independence advocate stated: "the American Revolution was complete in the hearts and minds of the colonists before a shot was ever fired."
John Adams
This philosophical movement emphasized "natural rights" and laws that colonists thoughout the America sused to justify their independence between 1775 and 1821.
Enlightenment
Originally an economic expression of European nationalism, this method of granting trade monopolies led to the widespread disillusionment of colonists in the Americas.
Mercantilism
The most widespread respond to this inequities of mercantilism was for colonists in the Americas to participate in the illegal trade known by what term?
Smuggling
This system of mercantilist exchanged between European nations and their colonies in Africa and America formed a trade pattern known as the...
triangular trade
This highly unpopular tax on all public paper led to loud protests up and down the Atlantic seaboard, and destructive riots in Boston, Massachusetts in 1765.
Stamp Act
Led by Paul Revere, the Italian-American silversmith from Boston's North End, and Samuel Adams, a well-known Boston smuggler, this event ersulted in the costly destruction of cargo belonging to the East India Company in 1773.
Boston Tea Party
There were great land estates granted to conquistadors and other "fortunate soldiers" before the 1540s. Not only did they win lands and resources, but title to the people living there as well.
Encomienda
This is the Spanish term for a "full-blooded" Spaniard born in the American colonies of New Spain.
Peninsular
This is the term for a Spaniard born in the American colonies of New Spain.
Criollo
This elite religious order operated in New Spain between the 1570s and the mid-18th century, to become one of the colony's wealthiest entitles.
Jesuits
This "enlightened" Bourbon king attacked the power of the church in Spain's colonies and opened marginal regions (like California) for settlement.
Charles III
This Catholic priest is commonly known as the "Father of Mexican Independence."
Miguel Hidalgo
This South American patriot, known as the "liberator," led the independence of Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia and Peru.
Simon Bolivar
This revolutionary leader led the independence of the "southern cone" of South America (Argentina and Chile).
Jose San Martin
This member of the Portuguese royal family proclaimed the independence of Brasil in 1822 and crowned himself emperor.
Dom Pedro I
German kingdoms, pincipalities formed a federation known by this term.
Holy Roman Empire
Charles I of Spain, elected to the thrown of the Holy Roman Empire (as Charles V) in 1519, led the defense of Vienna in 1529 in order to stop the advance of this Muslim power in Eastern Europe.
Ottoman Turks
This religion culturally unified most of the ethically diverse city-states and tribes of the northern half of the African continent.
Islam
This West African empire culture emerged as a power in the 4th century and reached its peak during the 11th century, when it converted to Islam.
Ghana
This great West African empire culture emerged in the 13th century along the Niger River Valley.
Mali
Built upon the ruins of earlier empires, this West African empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century.
Songhai
Mali's empire enjoyed significant expansion under this African sultan
Mansa Musa
Due to its location at the junction of important trade routes, this West African city-state reigned as one of the Mali's Empire's principal cities.
Timbuktu
This ruler of the Songhai Empire came topower in 1464 and conquered much of West African through his use of a river navy.
Sonni Ali
This West-African prince was captured in war and sold into slavery. He wound up on a plantation in Natchez, Mississippi in 1789.
Ibrahima
This Irish doctor was rescued by Ibrahima's father in Africa; to his surprise he discovered the son of the African king living as a slave in Mississippi many years later.
John Cox
This Natchez newspaper publicized Ibrahima's story, while its publisher, Andrew Marchalk, led the effort to free the African prince.
Mississippi State Gazette
This son of African farmers was kidnapped and sold into slavery. Purchased by a British naval officer, he traveled the world and later purchased his freedome to become a leading 18th century British abolitionist.
Olaudah Equiano
This man was the song of a northern Indian ruler and part of the Siddhartha clan of the Shakya tribe. Representing new philosophical ideas and challenges to the Brahmanic caste system, he became known as "The Enlightened One"
Gautama Buddha
From its ancient origins through the 20th century, the Chinese system of government followed a pattern of growth and fragmentation called the...
dynastic cycle
As new dynastic powers emerged to rule in China, they won the overall support from the people through the recognition that they attained a...
"mandate of heaven"
This renowned Chinese itinerant safe called for the creation of a system of government and morals that would create and preserve peace and stability.
Confucius
This Confucian philosopher emphasized love in all relationships; his childhood relationship with his mother became the Chinese ideal of maernal devotion and motherhood.
Mencius
His name means "old person pr philosopher," he was the founder of Taoism.
Lao-Tzu
This ancient publication was authored by Lao-Tzu and contains the ideas of Taoism.
Tao-te Ching
Using water metaphors this Taoist idea stresses the value of "nonstriving" or living without purpose.
wu-wei
There are the martial arts of Taoism.
Kung Fu
This was the form of Buddhism that flourished in China
Mahayana Buddhism
Mahayana Buddhism assrts that through the ptractice of its philosophies, the cycle of reincarnation can be broken allowing devotees to reach this state of being.
Nirvana
In Mahayana Buddhism, those enlightened persons who achieve nirvana do not escape the bounds of this earth, but instead remain to assist others in their Journey. As such these enlightened ones are known by this term.
Bodhisattva
This Chinese philosopher wrote The Art of War.
Sun-Tzu
Mo-Tzu was a Chinese philosopher that stresed the importance of love in human relationships. His philosopher, known as _____, became a rival of Confucianism.
Moism
Founded by Shang Yang, this Chinese philosophy emphasized the cirtues of a strong, centralize and dictatorial state
Legalism
This Chinese dynasty experienced dramatic European incursions into its culture and territory; it became renowned worldwide for its arts.
Ming Dynasty
Meaning "bright," this Chinese dynasty was founded by the Manchu in 1644 and remained until its fall in 1911-12.
Ch'ing Dynasty
The Ch'ing leaders originated north of China att his vast provine.
Manchuria
This Manchu visionary believed himself destined to rule China; once he "became" Chinese by a thorough education of the Chinese classics and culture, he led a spectacular invasion in the early 17th century.
Nurhachi
Once they consolidated their power in China, the Manchu created this dual method of rule, preserving the role of the Han Chinese in government.
Dyarchy
This Eurasian nation has a centuries-old history of interaction with China.
Russia
With the help of Portugyese and French Jesuit priests, Russia and China resolved trade and boundary issues in this document in 1689.
Treaty of Nertchinsk
The Japanese Emperor traditionally was thought to be the descendant of Amaterasu-o-mi-kami. Who was/is this imperial ancestor?
Sun-goddess
Referring to kami-no-michi or "the way above" this is Japan's oldest religious tradition.
Shinto
Shintoism is rooted in tribal nature religions known academically by this term.
Pantheism
Written around 1002AD, this Japanese story became the world's first novel
Tale of Genji
During the nearly 700-year feudal period of Japan's history, this warrior class ruled the islands.
Bushi or Samurai
In its full name, this term means "barbarian-subduing generalissimo" and referred to the Ainu eradication campaigns of the 8th century.
Shogun
An ancient "caucasoid" people likely related to ancient Polynesians, they were probably the earliest settlers of the Japanese archipelago.
Ainu
During the Tokugawa Shogunate, the capital of Japan was moved to the city of Edo. What is the name of that city today?
Tokyo
Through "gunboat diplomacy" this American naval commander forced Japan to open its borders to trade in 1853.
Commodore Matthew C. Perry
With the decline of the Tokugawa Shogunate the authority of the Emperor was reinstated with the help of the samurai in 1868 in this event.
Meiji Restoration
This Polish intellectual challenged traditional European authority with his theory of a heliocentric universe.
Nicholas Copernicus
This Enlightenment thinker was the founder of what came to be known as the "Cartesian Revolution."
Rene Descartes
This Cartesian philosopher discovered the light spectrum and developed the beginnings of calculus.
Sir Isaac Newton
This even comprised a struggle for power between King Charles I and the Puritan-led Parliament of England, after which the king lost his head in 1648
English Civil War
This work of Thomas Hobbes attacked the absolutism of monarchy.
Leviathan
This work of Montesquieu's was a major reference that James Madison used in forming his arguments (published in The Federalist) promoting the Constitution of the United States.
The Spirit of Laws
While writing Federalist 10 in defense of the Constitution of the United States, James Madison is said to have had a copy og Essays open before him; what was the name of the intellectual of the Scots Enlightenment who authored Essays?
David Hume
Applying "natural law" to government, this Englishman asserted that there basic human rights to "life, liberty, and property."
John Locke
Declaring that humans were intrinsically good, and that only government corrupted them, Locke used this term to describe the uncorrupted human mind.
tabula rasa
John Locke's theories were used to justify the "Glorious Revolution" that unseated this king in England and Gov. Andros of Massachusetts in 1688.
James II
This French Enlightenment philosopher challenged European notions of mercantilism with his observations of the "natural law" of economy through what he called "laissez faire."
Francois Quesnay