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22 Cards in this Set

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TEST QUESTION

Common cold
Hallmark symptom:
Nasal discharge
*Rhinorrhea*
Coryza
Or nasal obstruction
viruses that cause the common cold
40% Rhinovirus (100 serotypes)
20% Coronavirus (3 serotypes)
40% Unidentified virus
MOST COMMON ILLNESS WORLDWIDE
Common cold
Rhinovirus spread by aerosol, direct contact, and indirect contact involving objects with virus-contaminated respiratory ______.
secretions
Incubation period of common cold
: 1-5 days (Mean = 2)
TEST QUESTION

what grade of fever accompanies common cold
no fever


(fever > or = 101.5 F)
Diagnosis of common cold
history and physical examination:
Nasal erythema, congestion on exam
Lack of other findings
Rule out Strep Pharyngitis
Rapid strep test, results in 2 minutes
Throat culture, results in 3-5 days
TEST QUESTION

Treatment of the common cold
Symptomatic treatment
1) Acetaminophen (Tylenol) – personal use
2) Alpha agonists help with nasal congestion
a- Topical: Oxymetazoline (Afrin) nasal spray B.I.D. for 3 days maximum (Rebound effect)
b- Oral: Phenylephrine, Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)


Antihistamines, not indicated (Sleep aid?)
TEST QUESTION

why not give children aspirin?
Avoid Aspirin in children: Reye’s syndrome
Causitive organism of pharyngitis
15-30% Group A, Beta-hemolytic Streptococci (Streptococcus Pyogenes)
20% Rhinovirus
>5% Coronavirus
5% Adenovirus
5% Group C, Beta-hemolytic Streptococci
If rapid strep test is postitive, what do you do?
treat strep
If rapid strep test is negative, what do you do?
confirm with throat culture
Gold standard of strep testing
throat culture
Object of pharyngitis treatment
To prevent complications
Peritonsillar abscess
Rheumatic Fever
Glomerulonephritis
TEST QUESTION

one reason there are multiresistant organisms
AGGRESSIVE TREATMENT of pharyngitis PHILOSOPHY IS LEADING TO MULTIRESISTANT ORGANISMS
Strep Phayrngitis treatment
1) Penicillin G Benzanthine 1.2 Million Units Intramuscularly – once
2) Nearly any oral antibiotic
3) Amoxicillin 500mg T.I.D. for 10 days
4) Azithromycin (Zithromax) 500mg then 250mg daily for 4 days
Pros and cons of Penicillin G Benzanthine treatment
Pro: Only agent shown to reduce rate of Rheumatic Fever
Pro: One time dose
Con: LARGE needle, buttock injection, pain
Pros and cons of oral antibiotic treatment
Pro: Preferred route by most
Pro: Cheap agents
Con: Need to complete 10 day therapy
Con: May need to refrigerate liquid prep.
TEST QUESTION

Acute Inflammation of bronchial tubes
Acute Bronchitis
TEST QUESTION

Etiology typically viral initially
but can get bacterial overgrowth.
Smokers more likely to have bacterial.
which one?
Hemophillus Influenza
treatment of H. Influenza
macrolides (azith/zithro)
fluoroquinolones (levafloxacin/levaquin)
Treatment of viral cause of acute bronchitis
symptomatic

bronchodilator
mucolytic/anti-tussive
rest, fluids, avoiding irritants, quit smoking