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57 Cards in this Set

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Mountain range west of Coastal Plain from Newfoundland to Alabama over 400 million yrs. old
What are the Appalachian Mnts?
Ancient tree covered mountains with rounded tops;
Appalchian Trail extends 2,160 square miles
A large grassland with few trees rising from Central Lowlands to Rocky Mtns. Used to grow crops & raise cattle
What are the Great Plains?
Rises some 4000 ft. from C. Lowlands
Covers most of Greenland, curves around Hudson Bay, and reaches the U.S. along the Great Lakes.
What is the Canadian Shield or Laurentian Plateau?
topography ranges from flat plains, hills & lakes to high mnts. & forests. Rich in minerals like iron, gold, copper, silver & uranium.
High, rugged, heavily forested ranges west of Great Plains from Canada to U.S.A.; younger @ 80M yrs.
What are the Rocky Mnts?
Young mnts. which have not been worn down by weathering & time.
A chain of 5 lakes between Canada and U.S.A. formed by glacial activity of the Ice Age.
What are the Great Lakes?
H.O.M.E.S. = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, & Superior
Canada's longest river flowing through the Northwest Territories to the Arctic Ocean.
What is the Mackenzie River?
Extend Northwest from Great Slave Lake by Mackenzie Mtns. to Beaufort Sea.
Permanently frozen ground.
What is Permafrost?
typical of polar regions
Winds that blow from west to east in the middle of the latitudes affecting Pacific Coast.
What are Prevailing Westerlies?
Bring in moisture from the Pacific Ocean moderating the climate
A huge swampland covering some 4000 square miles in the southern tip of Florida w/ tropical wet & dry climate
What are the Everglades?
a natural game refuge for waterfowl
People who move from place to place as hunter-gatherers
What are Nomads?
nomads today are Aborigines, Inuits, and tribes of the Sahara
A land bridge that once connected Siberia & Alaska during the Ice Age
What is Beringia?
Provided the means for people and animals to migrate to North America
A deep water ship route completed in the 1950's as a joint project between U.S. & Canada.
What is the St.Lawrence Seaway?
Connects the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean.
Sections of waterway or Canal with closed gates wher water levels are raised or lowered helping ships to sail into the industrial & agricultural heartland of America
What is a Lock?
Key part of a Canal which raises & lowers ships to various sea levels.
The number of live births per thousand population
What is the Birthrate?
2000: highest birthrate = Niger @ 54/1000 people
The average number of children a woman of childbearing age would have in her lifetime, if she had children at the current rate for her country.
What is the Fertility Rate?
F.R. of 2.1 = replacement rate; worldwide average = 3.0
The number of deaths per thousand people
What is the Mortality Rate?
Healthy Society = low mortality rate
Number of infant deaths under age 1 per thousand live births.
What is the Infant-Mortality Rate?
correlates with countries development ( poverty, famine, war, disease, etc.}
Birthrate minus mortality rate = ________
What is the Rate of Natural Increase?
Also called the Population Growth Rate
A graphic device that shows sex and age distribution of a population;allows geographers to examine how events in society affect the population of country/region
What is a Population Pyramid?
Ex. wars, famine & epidemics
Those reasons causing people to migrate to another region from their homeland.
what are Push - Pull Factors?
Ex.Push = Environmental conditions, persecution / ethnic & religious reasons;
pull = economics, jobs, good climate, safety etc.
The average number of people who live in a measureable area, like per square mile
What is Population Density?
can be affected by topography of land
The number of organisms a piece of land can support
What is Carrying Capacity?
Increases with fertile land and better technology
An independent unit that occupies a specific territory & has full control of its internal & external affairs
What is a State?
Also called Territories in Canada.
A group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity.
What is a Nation?
territory occupied by a Federation or tribe Ex. Native Americans
When a nation & state occupy the same area.
What is a Nation-State?
Ex. Palestinians, Kurdish & Basques
Citizens hold political power, either directly or through elected representatives.
What is a Democracy?
Ex. United States of America
A ruling family headed by a king or queen who holds political power and may/may not share power w/ citizens
What is a Monarchy?
Ex. United Kingdom or Saudi Arabia
An individual/group holds complete political power.
What is a Dictatorship?
Ex. North Korea, Afghanistan
A government & economic system in which nearly all political power & means of production are held by the government in the name of all the people.
What is Communism?
Ex. China, North Korea
A country surrounded by land with no direct outlet to the sea.
What is Landlocked?
Ex. Mongolia, Paraguay
The study of how people use space in cities.
What is Urban Geography?
Studies land use design.
Areas with large populations that are centers of business and culture and if capital - government
What are Cities?
Ex. Atlanta, Chicago , Baltimore, etc.
Political units touching the borders of the central city/touching other suburbs of a city.
What are Suburbs?
Ex. Alpharetta, Stone Mountain, etc. ; Exurbs are separated from city by open land.
A city, its suburbs, & exurbs linked together economically to form a ____________ area.
What is a Metropolitan Area?
Ex. Atlanta, Chicago, Baltimore, etc.
Forms when several metropolitan areas grow together.
What is a Megalopolis?
Ex. Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, & Washington, D.C.
People migrating to cities to find work causes growth in city & suburbs
What is Urbanization?
Migration from rural area to city.
Includes single-family housing and apartment buildings.
What is Residential?
Located outside the Central Business District
Land reserved for manufacturing goods
What is Industrial?
Usually factories are located in a particular area outside the city
The core of a city where business offices & stores, government & expensive housing may be found.
What is Central Business District? (CBD)
Nucleus of city planning
The production & exchange of goods and services among a group of people.
What is Economy?
Ex. Traditional,Market, Command, Mixed
The ways people produce and exchange goods & services.
What is an Economic System?
Varies with type of government
Goods and services are traded w/o exhanging money "barter"
What is a Traditional Economy?
ex. Exchanging raw materials for food surplus
Production of goods & services determined by a Central Government; also may be owner of the means of production (factories)
What is a Command Economy?
ex. found in Socialist & Communist countries
Production of goods and services are determined by consumers demand
What is a Market Economy?
Also called " demand economy" or "capitalism"
A combination of command & market economies provides goods & services so that all people will benefit.
What is a Mixed Economy?
Canada has socialized medicine but also a market economy regarding retail products
Gathering raw materials such as timber/minerals for immediate use or to use in making a finished product
What are Primary Activities?
Loggers cut trees and sell them to lumber mills
Activities that add value to materials by changing their form.
What are Secondary Activities?
turning lumber into furniture or housing
Activities that provide business or professional services.
What are Tertiary Activities?
sales people, teachers, & doctors
Activities that provide information, management, & research services by highly-trained personnel
What are Quaternary Activities?
Ex. Chief Executive Officer or Superintendent of Schools
Materials on/in Earth - trees, fish, coal which have economic value.
What are Natural Resources?
May be renewable, nonrenewable, or inexhaustible.
Materials that can be replaced through natural processes
What is Renewable?
trees, soil, water.
Materials that cannot be replaced once they are removed from the ground
What is Nonrenewable?
Ex. metals, nonmetals, fossil fuels, water
Sources of energy that are not finite
What are Inexhaustible Energy Sources?
Ex. sunlight, geothermal heat, winds, tides.
The basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, sanitation, communication, transportation, water, & education
What is Infrastructure?
required to be a developed country
The average amount of money earned by each person in a political unit
What is Per Capita Income?
Increases with development of country
The total value of all goods & services produced by a country over a year/other specified time period
What is the GNP/ Gross National Product?
The statistical measure of an economy domestic & foreign
The total value of all goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time
What is the GDP / Gross Domestic Product?
Statistical measure of an economy at home (domestic)