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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Mutations are...
Changes in genetic material.
Genetics are..
the branch of biology that studies heredity.
What are genetic disorders?
THe harmful effects that are produced by mutated genes.
What is Heredity?
The transmission of traits from parent to offspring.
* transmission of...*
What is self-pollination?
when the flower does not open fully and fertilizes itself.
*when flower fertilizes...*
Cross-pollination is...
the transferring the pollen from the flower of one plant to the flower of a different plant.
*When a flower is transferred to..*
True-breeding is...
when all the offspring would display only one form of a particular trait.
* when offspring would display...*
What is P generation?
Plants taht displayed only one form of a particular trait.
* displayed on form of..*
F1 generation is...
offspring from a cross of two varieties.
* cross of...*
What is an f2 generation?
offspring from crosses among individuals of the F1 generation.
*crosses among......of the F1 generation*
What is a dominant trait?
a trait that is expressed when it's allele is homozygous or heterozygous.
*when a trait is...*
A recessive trait is..
a trait taht was not exspressed in the F1 generation.
Homozygous refers to..
a pair of genes with two identical alleles for a trait.
What is an allele?
an alternative form of a gene
A heterozygous refers to...
a pair of genes with two different alleles for a trait.
What is a phenotype?
An observable characteristic of an organism.
* an observable characteristic of...*
A genotype is...
a genetic constitution of an organism as indicated by its set of alleles.
The law of segregation states...
that the members of each pair of alleles separate when the gametes are formed
The law of independent assortment state that...
pairs of alleles separate independently of one another during gamete formation.
What is Probability?
Probability is the likelihood that a specific event will occur.
* Something that can happen*
What is the formula for Probability?
PRbability = Number of one kind of possible outcome divided by the total number of all possible outcomes.
A monhybrid cross is...
a cross that provides data about a pair of contrasting traits.
A Punnet square is..
A diagram used by biologists to predict the possible outcome of a cross.
A dihybrid cross is..
a cross that involves two pairs of contratsting traits.
What is incomplete dominance?
a trait that is intermediate betweent the two parents, a phenomenon.
A codominance is...
the two dominant alleles are expressed at the same time.
Multiple alleles are...
genes with more than two alleles.
What is continuous variation?
a trait that's controlled by several genes and exhibits a variety of phenotypes a genetic phenomenon.
A sickle cell anemia is..
an example of a recessive genetic disorder.
What is a hemoglobin?
HEmoglobin binds with oxygen and transports it through the body found within red blood cells.
What is PLasmodium?
a disease caused by protozoans of the genus
Hemophilia is..
a condition that impairs the blood's ability to clot and can cause excessive and prolonged bleeding.
A sex-linked trait is..
a trait that is determined by a gene found only on the X chromosome.r
What are pedigrees?
Family histories
Phenylketonuria or PKU is..
a genetic disorder which lacks an enzyme to convert the amino acid phenylalanine into the amino acid tyrosine.