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92 Cards in this Set

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Small perforations of the long bones through which the blood vessels and nerves travel through the bone itself.
Haversian canals
Bone-forming cell found in the bone matrix that helps maintain the bone.
Osteocyte
Cell that helps in the creation of new bone during growth and bone repair.
Osteoblast
Structures through which blood vessels enter and exit the bone shaft.
Perforating canals
Loss of blood vessels from a body part.
Devascularization
Hallow shaft found in long bones.
Diaphysis
End of a long bone, including the epiphyseal, or growth plate, and supporting structures underlying the joint.
Epiphysis
Having a lattice-work structure, as in the spongy tissue of a bone.
Cancellous
Surface of a bone that moves against another bone.
Articular surface
Growth zone of a bone, active during the development stages of youth. It is located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.
Metaphysis
Area of the metaphysis where cartilage is generated during bone growth in childhood. Also called the growth plate.
Epiphyseal plate
Cavity within a bone that contains the marrow.
Medullary canal
Tissue that stores frat in semiliquid form within the internal cavities of a bone.
Yellow bone marrow
Tissue within the internal cavity of a bone responsible for the manufacture of erythrocytes and other blood cells.
Red bone marrow
The tough exterior covering of a bone.
Periosteum
Connective tissue providing the articular surfaces of the skeletal system.
Cartilage
Bone that forms in a tendon.
Sesamoid bone
Area where adjacent bones articulate.
Synarthroses
Joints that permit a limited amount of independent motion.
Amphiarthroses
Synovial joints.
Diarthroses
Type of joint that permits the greatest degree of independent motion.
Synovial joint
Types of Joints
- Synarthroses - immovable
- Amphiarthroses - very limited movement
- Diarthroses (synovial joints) - relatively free movement
= Monaxial
= Biaxial
= Triaxial
Movement of a body part toward the midline.
Adduction
Movement of a body part away from the midline.
Abduction
Movemnet at a synovial joint where the distal end of a bone describes a circle but the shaft does not rotate.
Circumduction
Bands of connective tissue that connect bone to bone and hold joints together.
Ligaments
Substance that lubricates synovial joints.
Synovial fluid
Sac containing synovial fluid that cushions adjacent structures.
Bursa
Bones of the head, thorax, and spine.
Axial skeleton
Bones of the extremities, shoulder girdle, and pelvis (excepting the sacrum).
Appendicular skeleton
Triangular bone buried within the musculature of the upper back.
Scapula
Bone that holds the scapula and shoulder joint at a fixed distance from the sternum and permits the shoulder to move up and down (shrug).
Clavicle
The single bone of the proximal upper extremity.
Humerous
Bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
Radius
Bone on the little finger side of the forearm.
Ulna
Proximal end of the ulna.
Olecranon
Bones of the wrist.
Carpal bones
Bones of the palm.
Metacarpals
Bones of the fingers and toes.
Phalanges
Skeletal structure where the lower extremities are attach to the body.
Pelvis
One of the structures of the pelvis.
Innominate
Large, flat innominate bone.
Ilium
Irregular innominate bone.
Ischium
Lateral bony ridge that is a landmark of the pelvis.
Iliac crest
One of the bony knobs of the posterior pelvis.
Ischial tuberosity
Large bone of the proximal lower extremity.
Femur
The larger bone of the lower leg that articulates with the femur.
Tibia
The small bone of the lower leg.
Fibula
The protuberance of the ankle.
Malleolus
The largest bone of the foot; the heel.
Calcaneus
One of the bones forming the arch of the foot.
Metatarsal
Small bundle of the muscle fibers.
Fasciculus
Attachment of a muscle to a one that does not move (or experiences the least movement) when the muscle contracts.
Origin
Attachment of a muscle to a bone that moves when the muscle contracts.
Insertion
Paring of muscles that permits extension and flexion of limbs.
Opposition
Bands of connective tissue that attach muscle to bone.
Tendons
Types of Muscular Injuries
- Contusion
- Compartment syndrome
- Penetrating injury
- Muscle fatigue
- Muscle cramp
- Muscle spasm
- Muscle strain
Condition in which a muscle's ability to respond to stimulation is lost or reduced through overactivity.
Fatigue
Muscle pain resulting from overactivity, lack of oxygen, and accumulation of wast products.
Cramping
Intermittent or continuous contraction of a muscle.
Spasm
Injury resulting from overstretching of muscle fibers.
Strain
Types of Joint Injury
- Sprain
- Subluxation
- Dislocation
Tearing of a joint capsule's connective tissues.
Sprain
Types of Sprains
- Grade I - minor and incomplete capsule tear; painful, but minimal swelling; joint stable
- Grade II - significant by incomplete tear; moderate to severe pain, swelling; joint intact but unstable
- Grade III - complete tear; severe pain and spasm; joint unstable
Partial displacement of a bone end from its position in a joint capsule.
Subluxation
Complete displacement of a bone end from its position in a joint capsule.
Dislocation
A broken bone in which the bone ends or the forces that caused it do not penetrate the skin.
Closed fracture
A broken bone in which the bone ends or the forces that caused it penetrate the surrounding skin.
Open fracture
Types of Fractures
- Open
- Closed
- Hairline
- Impacted
- Transverse
- Oblique
- Comminuted
- Spiral
- Greenstick
- Epiphyseal
Small crack in a bone that does not disrupt its total structure.
Hairline fracture
Break in a bone in which the bone is compressed on itself.
Impacted fracture
A break that runs across a bone perpendicular to the bone's orientation.
Transverse fracture
Break in a bone running across it at an angle other than 90 degrees.
Oblique fracture
Fracture in which a bone is broken into several pieces.
Comminuted fracture
A curving break in a bone as may be caused by rotational forces.
Spiral fracture
Break in a bone associated with prlonged or repeated stress.
Fatigue fracture
Partial fracture of a child's bone.
Greenstick fracture
Disruption in the epiphyseal plate of a child's bone.
Epiphyseal fracture
Weakening of bone tissue due to loss of essential minerals, especially calcium.
Osteoporosis
Thickened area that forms at the site of the fracture as part of the repair process.
Callus
Acute or chronic inflammation of the small synovial sacs.
Bursitis
Inflammation of a tendon and/or its protective sheath.
Tendonitis
Inflammation of a joint.
Arthritis
Inflammation of a joint resulting from wearing of the articular cartilage.
Osteoarthritis
Chronic disease that souses deterioration of peripheral joint connective tissue.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Inflammation of joints and connective tissue due to buildup of uric acid crystals.
Gout
Classification of Patients with Musculoskeletal Injuries
- Life- and limb-threatening injuries
- Life-threatening injuries, minor musculoskeletal injuries
- Non-life-threatening injuries, serious limb-threatening injuries
- Non-life-threatening injuries, isolated minor musculoskeletal injuries
The Six Psin Evaluation Limb Injury
- Pain
- Pallor
- Paralysis
- Paresthesia
- Pressure
- Pulses
Early Indicators of Compartment Syndrome
- Feelings of tension within limb
- Loss of distal sensation (especially in webs of fingers and toes)
- Complaints of pain
- Condition more severe than mechanism of injury would indicate
- Pain on passive extension of extremity
- Pulse deficit (late sign)
Basic Muscluloskeletal Injury Care
- Protecting open wounds
- Proper positioning
- Immobilization the injury
- Monitoring of neurovascular function
Returning of displaced bone ends to their proper anatomical orientation.
Reduction
RICE Procedure for Strains, Sprains, and Soft-Tissue Injuries
- Rest the extremity
- Ice for first 48 hours
- Compress with elastic bandage
- Elevate extremity