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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Medial compression
degree to which folds meet @ midline. LCA and Inter arytenoids primarly responsible.
Longitudinal tension
Tension in vocal folds responsible for pitch changes. Thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid.
Myoelastic aerodynamic theory of phonation
Myoelastic-certain amount of elasticity in all structures in larynx. Aerodynamic-lungs and airflow must be normal for phonation.
Onset of phonation
first cycles are abnormal Two phases prephonatory phase, attack phase
prephonatory phase
mover from rest toward midline(adduction)-no phonation. Duration is variable only ms.
Attack phase
begin vibration-the relation between adduction and air release from lungs. First cycles of vibration
Three vocal attacks
simultaneous attack, breathy attack, and hard glottal attack
simultaneous attach
air release @ same time vocal folds adduct.
breath attack
air release before adduction/ learned/physical.
hard glottal attack
vocal folds slammed hard before air stream is released-tension require a lot of air to get through vocal folds.
Bernoulli effect
begins in attack phase and continued thorugh vibration-moves vocal folds mediall and subglottic pressure blows vocal folds apart.
Fundamental freq.
rate at which vocal folds open and close per second. Dependent on age, gender, context, and health.
Normal range
two/three octaves-octave doubling frequency.
Vocal folds @ high pitches
result in lengthening, narrowing, and only the medial edge will vibrate. high subglottic pressure
High subglottic pressure
assoc. w/ high pitches
Vocal folds@ low pitches
result in fat, short, more cover vibration.
Vocal folds @ high intensity
build up of subglottic pressure and slam together
Vocal folds @ low intesity
whispering results in a lot of vocal fold tension
Male fund freq.
female fund freq
Larynx of females
almost adult size before puberty
Larynx of males
Grows 2-3 x's as much before puberty than females. More thyroid growth. Growth cause voice to change
waivering voice
due to less fine motor control
Aging respiratory
lower respiratory support and less control over airflow all complicated by hearing loss
Aging voice changes
hoarsness, breathy due to physical and structural changes-epitheal and lamina propria become less elastic.
Congenital laryngeal malformation
present at birth-result in airway obstructiton-noticeable by strider (noisy inhale/exhale) weak cray/aphonia, hoarse, swallwoing dysphasia.
Congenital laryngeal malformation types
Vocal fold hemangioma, laryngeal papilloma, laryngomalacia, laryngeal wel, subglottic stenosis, laryngocele, laryngeal cyst, laryngoesophageal cleft.
a group of symtoms and signs which when appearing simultaneous form a definite pattern of a specific condition disease abnormality w/one underlying cause.
Vocal fold aging
continue to grow into early adulthood @ 35 begin to age. effected by hormonal balance.
Vocal fold hemangioma
tend to grown and then get smaller-obstruct airway.
Laryngeal Papilloma
Viral, cauliflower, rapidly growing, may invade larynx, trachea, and bronchi. May grow rapidly until puberty.
floppy larynx Epiglottis, cunieform, and corniculates not keep airway open especially on inhale. May resolve may need trach.
Laryngeal web
vocal folds did not separate from one another-range from microweb->complete obstruction.
Subglottic stenosis
narrowing of area around cricoid 2-3mm below vf 2xs as common in females Limit respiratory support-weak cry 60-80% need trach or dilation
Subglottic stenosis treatment
Feeding, swallowing, language development
fluid/air filled sacs. internal/external cause some airway obstruction interfere w/ vf vibration.
laryngocele treatment
help achieve best voice possible
laryngoesophageal cleft
rare-no compatible w/ life usually aborted/stillborn. part of another syndrome.
Laryngoesophageal treatment
Surgery swallowing, feeding, and alt. comm. there will be cognitive and physical impairment because one midline problem indicates others.
associated w/ Down syndrome cycle to cycle variation in time
associted w/ Down syndrome-cycle to cycle variation in amplitude.
Down syndrome voice charaters
breathy hoarse lower pitch, decreases phonation time, decrease intonation, shimmer and jitter.
Down syndrome
Trisomy 21 1 in 500-600 births. large tongue, hypotonia, excessive mucous lining in larynx up to pharynx affect thickness of vf cover.
spontaneous mutation, benign tumors anywhere there's nerve, abnormal skin pigment, 1 in 2500 births found in cns small->large tumors
Treatment neurofibromatosis
surgically remover but can come back
Neurofibromatosis voice characters
breatyness, hoarsness, monotone, CNX affected->short phonation/duration. May result in swallowing probs and shortness of breath.
Cri du chat (cry of the cat)
5p chromosome deficiency, kitten mew at birth, distinct facial features, mod->severe cog., diff. in fine motor. Help functionally communicate
Cri du Chat voice character
abnormal larynx develop, strained voice quality, inhale stridor, cry on inhale,
Cleft palate
not syndrome, not assoc. w/ cog. defecits. palatal shelves didn not fuse during 9-10 weeks.
Cleft palate voice characters
may result velopharyngeal disfunction, hypernasal (resonance) excessive larynx tense. hoarseness, breathyness, laryngeal tension, vocal strain, treat as vocal abuse.
small jaw, characteristic of cri du chat
low muscle tone cri du chat and DS
eyes far apart cri du chat
crossed eyes cri du chat
small head
not a voice disorder, resonance disorder
failure to thrive-not growing despite adequate nutrition. cri du chat
Laryngeal cyst
Do not have opening Develop in lamina propria, limit pitch range, limit respiratory support for intensity, breathyness, sugery causes damage to vf.
Cri du chat physical
micrognathia, hypotonia, microcephaly, hypertelorion, strabisms, FTT, laryngomalacia, may have cleft soft/hard palate ?austistic.