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18 Cards in this Set

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oligotrophic
waters that are low in nutrients such as phosphate and combined nitrogen, and consequently low in primary productivity and biomass, but typically high in species diversity
eutrophication
the process by which natural waters are converted from the nutrient-poor, low-productivity, high-diversity condition to the nutrient-rich, high-productivity, low-diversity condition
eutrophic waters
waters that contain relatively high levels of nutrients such as phosphate and/or combined nitrogen and; typically exhibit high levels of primary productivity
diazotrophy
the ability to convert diatomic, gaseous N2 gas into ammonium ion, which can be used by cells to produce amino acids
nitrogenase
in cyanobacteria (and some other bacteria), the holoenzyme that performs nitrogen fixation- conversion of diatomic N2 gas into ammonium ion
refractory carbon
forms of organic carbon that are resistant to microbial, chemical, and physical degradation
algaenans
decay-resistant polymers of unbranched hydrocarbons produced in the cell walls of some algae
marine snow
particulate aggregates of algal cells or their remains, fecal pellets, bacteria, and heterotrophic protists, held together by mucilage, that are important in the transformation and transport of organic carbon to deep ocean sediments
calcification
deposition of calcium carbonate
diazotrophy
the ability to convert diatomic, gaseous N2 gas into ammonium ion, which can be used by cells to produce amino acids
photorespiration
a process by which some of the organic carbon produced in photosynthesis is wasted through the excretion of glycolate; based on competition between O2 and CO2 for the active site in Rubisco; occurs more rapidly under conditions of high irradiance, low dissolved inorganic carbon levels, and high levels of oxygen
nitrogenase
in cyanobacteria (and some other bacteria), the holoenzyme that performs nitrogen fixation- conversion of diatomic N2 gas into ammonium ion
peroxisomes
organelle bound by a single membrane that occurs in the cytoplasm of embryophyte cells and those of some eukaryotic algae, and contains characteristic enzymes such as glycolate oxidase and catalase; this term also sometimes used more generally as a synonym for microbodies- small single-membrane-bound structures that occur in some algae and contain catalase but not glycolate oxidase
refractory carbon
forms of organic carbon that are resistant to microbial, chemical, and physical degradation
carboxysomes
(polyhedral body) polygonal structure within the cells of cyanobacteria that contains the enzymes ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and carbonic anhydrase
algaenans
decay-resistant polymers of unbranched hydrocarbons produced in the cell walls of some algae
pyrenoids
a proteinaceous region in the plastids of many types of algae; known in some cases to contain Rubisco, and commonly associated with formation of storage compounds
marine snow
particulate aggregates of algal cells or their remains, fecal pellets, bacteria, and heterotrophic protists, held together by mucilage, that are important in the transformation and transport of organic carbon to deep ocean sediments