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90 Cards in this Set

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accessory pigments
aid in the collection of light not absorbed directly by chlorophyll molecules and channel the light energy to chlorophyll a
chlorophyll a
the only pigment that is able to effectively convert the energy of absorbed light into high energy bonds of organic molecules
zooxanthellae
(pl) unicellular golden-pigmented cells (usually dinoflagellates) that are endosymbiotic in marine animals, including reef-building corals
endosymbiosis
the condition in which one or more organisms live within the cells of a host without causing disease or other conspicuous harmful consequences
protists
eukaryotic organisms that are not members of the Kingdoms Fungi, Animalia, or Plantae (embryophytes); includes eukaryotic algae and many kinds of non-pigmented organisms
stromatolites
calcareous, layered assemblage of cyanobacteria, occuring as fossils or in modern waters in sheltered areas
phytoplankton
floating or swimming microscopic algae
bloom
visible growth of planktonic algae, often associated with nutrient-enriched waters
periphyton
the organisms that occur on the surfaces of plants, algae, and inorganic substrates in shallow benthic or nearshore littoral habitats
littoral
occuring in the nearshore region
benthic
having to do with the benthos- the bottom of a lake, stream, or marine system
systematics
the scientific study of organismal diversity and the relationships among organisms
phylogenetic
pertaining to phylogeny (evolutionary relationships)
phylogeny
a hypothesis of the way in which a group of organisms is evolutionarily related
monophyletic
used to describe a group of organisms that have descended from a single common ancestor
polyphyletic
in systematics, describes a group that contains some members that are actually more closely related to organisms outside the group
phylogenetic tree
a treelike diagram that represents a hypothesis regarding relationships of a group of organisms
apicomplexans
a phylum of protozoan parasites whose cells contain a nonpigmented plastid
protozoa
an informal term for a polyphyletic array of motile, heterotrophic protists
endosymbionts
organism that lives within the cell of another organism (the host) without causing disease or other obvious negative consequences for the host
host
an organism whose cells or body serves as a habitat for another
horizontal transfer
movement of genetic material from one organism to another without the involvement of sexual reproduction (vertical transfer)
eukaryotic
a type of cell possessing a nucleus, endomembrane and cytoskeletal systems, and (usually) organelles, including mitochondria, and in the case of most algae, plastids
chloroplast (plastid)
a membrane-bound DNA-containing organelle (the number of bounding membranes varying among groups) that typically contains membranous thylakoids bearing chlorophyll a and other components of photosynthetic systems (some plastids lack thylakoids and chlorophyll, however)
thylakoid
a flattened, saclike membranous structure in cyanobacterial cells and plastids of eukaryotic algae and plants
embryophytes
bryophytes and vascular plants
stramenopiles (heterokonts)
organisms that possess two flagella of distinct type, one bearing characteristic three-part flagellar hair, namely ochrophytes (heterokont algae), oomycetes, and some other protists
carbon fixation
conversion of carbon dioxide into organic carbon as the result of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis
photoautotrophs
(photoautotrophy) organism that obtains its organic nutrients by means of photosynthesis; obligate photoautotrophs are restricted to this form of nutrition
heterotrophic
(heterotrophy) nonautotrophic nutrition
phagotrophy
(phagocytosis) a form of nutrition in which particles such as cells are ingested by protists via invagination of the cell surface
osmotrophy
a form of nutrition in which dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is imported from the environment into cells
auxotrophy
the nutritional requirement for one or more vitamins
flagellates
unicellular or colonial protists whose cells bear one or more flagella
flagellum
(pl. flagella) in eukaryotes, a long, thin cellular projection that functions in motility; contains a peripheral ring of nine doublet microtobules and (usually) two central single microtubules
mixotrophy
a form of nutrition in which both autotrophy and heterotrophy may be utilized, depending on the availability of resources
primary productivity
the net amount of organic carbon that results from photosynthesis, usually expressed per unit volume or area and per unit time (often estimated by measuring oxygen production)
remineralization
transformation of elements from organic to inorganic form; e.g., the conversion of organic carbon into inorganic carbon
motile
moving or having the power to move spontaneously
microtubules
in eukaryotes, components of the cytoskeleton and flagella composed of the protein tubulin arranged to form hollow tubes 25 nm in diameter
parallel evolution
the independent evolution of similar characters in organisms belonging to separate lineages, but whose genetic backgrounds are similar
autapomorphy
derived character that defines a group of organisms
prokaryotic
lacking membrane-bound DNA (a nucleus), membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria, plastids), and endomembrane systems such as endoplasmic reticulum and a Golgi apparatus; prokaryotes also lack sexual reproduction systems and 9 + 2 flagella (cilia) like those of eukaryotes
thallus
(pl. thalli) the body of an alga, which is not differentiated into vascularized leaves, roots, and stems
colony
a type of thallus consisting of a group of cells held together by mucilage or cell-wall material
coenobium
(pl. coenobia) a type of colony whose shape and cell number is genetically determined, established early in development, and does not change during the life of the organism (though cells commonly enlarge during colony development)
filament
a type of algal thallus consisting of a linear array of cells in which neighboring cells share a common wall
uniseriate
having a single row of cells
multiseriate
having more than two rows of cells
coenocytic
multinucleate and without transverse walls (except, in many cases, during reproductive development)
siphonous
(siphonalean) describes a type of thallus composed of large multinucleate coenocytic cells wherein cross-walls are rarely formed
meristem
a cell or group of cells that is capable of repeated division and thus adds to the number of cells in a thallus
plasmogamy
during sexual reproduction, fusion of the cytoplasm of gametes; may or may not be immediately followed by karyogamy
gamete
a cell capable of fusing with another to form a zygote, with the two nuclei uniting to form a single zygotic nucleus
zygote
the product of gamete fusion (syngamy)
karyogamy
fusion of gamete nuclei
zoospore
flagellate spore
aplanospore
a nonflagellate spore that has the genetic potential to produce flagella under appropriate conditions; produced by subdivision of a parental cell
autospore
a type of nonflagellate spore that lacks the genetic potential to produce flagella
monospore
a nonflagellate spore produced singly in a monosporangium
monosporangium
a sporangium in which only a single spore is produced
sporangium
a cell whose contents become subdivided to form spores.
autocolony
a type of asexual reproductive colony that is a miniature of the adult colony; produced by single cells of the adult
fragmentation
accidental or programmed breakage of a thallus into pieces that serve as asexual propagules
propagule
a multicellular structure that serves in asexual reproduction
akinete
a thick-walled spore that functions in asexual reproduction, frequently serving as a resistant stage that undergoes a period of dormancy
isogamy
sexual reproduction involving gametes that are morphologically indistinguishable; structurally similar, but behaviorally distinguishable gametes are described as physiologically anisogamous
anisogamy
a type of sexual reproduction charaterized by two types of gametes that differ in size
oogamy
sexual reproduction involving syngamy of a small flagellate male gamete and a larger, nonflagellate (or only transiently flagellate) female gamete
monoecious
producing male and female gametes on the same thallus
dioecious
having male or female gametes (or gametes of different mating types) produced by separate individuals
homothallic
only one clone is required for sexual reproduction; self-compatible
heterothallic
two different clones are required for sexual reproduction; self-incompatible
phylum
A primary division of a kingdom, as of the animal kingdom, ranking next above a class in size
zygotic meiosis
meiosis occurring during zygote maturation or germination
meiosis
a form of nuclear division which pairing and separation of homologous chromosomes yields four progeny nuclei having half the chromosome number and DNA level of the parental nucleus
gametic meiosis
meiosis occurring during the production of gametes
gametophyte
the multicellular, gamete-producing phase in the life history of organisms having alternation of generations
sporophyte
the spore-producing phase in a life history that involves alternation of spore- and gamete-producing generations
sporic meiosis
meiosis that occurs during production of spores
alternation of generations (diplohaplontic)
a life history type in which there are two (or more in some red algae) multicellular stages that can be distinguished by type of reproductive cell produced and sometimes also by morphological features
isomophic
referring to a type of diplohaplontic life cycle (alternation of generations) in which the multicellular vegetative phases (sporophyte and gametophyte) are morphologically indistinguishable
heteromorphic (heteromorphy)
morphologically different; in algae, usually applied to distinctive gametophyte and sporophyte phases in diplohaplontic life cycles (alternation of generations)
haplobiontic (haplontic)
having a life history exhibiting one haploid vegetative phase; zygotes are the only diploid cells in such a life cycle
diplobiontic
having two free-living phases in the life history
diplontic
having a life history in which there is only one multicellular, diploid phase, with the gametes representing the only haploid cells
parthenogenesis
production of a new individual from an unfertilized gamete
coccolithophorids
unicellular members of the haptophyte algae that are characterized by a covering of small, ornate calcium carbonate scales
coccoliths
ornate calcium carbonate scales, produced internally, that occur on the surfaces of coccolithophorid algae
Rubisco
ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes incorporation of carbon dioxide into carbohydrate