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224 Cards in this Set

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genes
units of information about specific traits passed from parents to offspring
alleles
copies of genes dealing with the same trait
homozygous dominant
an individual has a pair of identical dominant alleles
heterozygous
two allele copies are different
recessive allele
trait is masked when paired with a dominant allele
phenotype
actual expression of a trait
monohybrid cross
tool used to predict probability phenotype for offspring of two parents with different alleles for the gene in question
probability
number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of a particular event
theory of segregation
when homologues separate into different gametes after meiosis II, the two genes of each pair separate as well
locus
location of a particular gene on a chromosome
hybrid offspring
offspring with a pair of nonidentical alleles for a trait
homozygous recessive
individual has a pair of identical recessive alleles
dominant allele
effect on a trait masks that of any recessive allele paired with it
genotype
the alleles an individual inherits
P
Parent generation of a cross
F1
first filial generation of a cross - offspring of a monohybrid cross
F2
second filial generation of a monohybrid cross - offspring of the offspring of monohybrid cross
homologous chromosomes
pair of chromosomes that resemble each other in size, shape and the genes they carry
Punnett-Square
tool for determining the probable outcome of genetic crosses
testcross
tool to determine a genotype of a parent using the observed trait the offspring
virus
a piece of genetic material inside a protein coat which is not a cell, but can infect the cells of other organisms
provirus
new DNA molecule created from a retrovirus
bacteria
prokaryotic cells with no nucleus, no organelles, most have a cell wall outside their plasma membrane
coccus
spherical shaped bacteria
pili
spiked formations that some bacteria use to stick to surfaces
antiviral drug
drug used to interfer with the ability of a virus to enter or replicate inside potential host cell
epidemic
disease rate increases to a level that is above what we would predict, based on experience
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus that destroys T cells, crippling the immune system
capsid
protein coat or shell of a virus particle
prion
small infectious protein that causes rare, fatal degenerative diseases of the nervous system
prokaryote
a bacterium; single celled organism with no nucleus and no organelles
bacillus (plural bacilli)
rod shaped bacteria
plasmid
small circles of extra DNA including a few genes inherited by daughter cells when some kinds of bacteria divide
sporadic disease
pattern in which a disease breaks out irregularly and affects relatively few people.
pandemic
term used to refer to epidemics that break out in several countries around the world in a given time span
retrovirus
RNA virus that infects animal cells, uses a reverse mode of pirating the host's genetic material
reverse transcriptase
viral enzyme which uses the RNA as a template from which it synthisizes a DNA molecule called a provirus
eukaryote
cell with a true nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
spirillum
a bacterial cell with one or more twists to it
antibiotic
substance that can dewtroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria and some other organisms
endemic disease
disease that occurs more or less continuously
AIDS
a group of diseases caused by infection with the HIV
genetic engineering
genes are isolated, modified and inserted back into the same organism or into a different one
restriction enzyme
enzymes that can recognize and cut apart specific short sequences of bases in DNA
sticky ends
a restriction fragment's single-stranded tail can base-pair with a complementary tail of any other DNA fragment or molecule cut by the same restriction enzyme
vector
A "vehicle", such as a modified virus or DNA molecule, used to deliver genetic material into the body for gene therapy
DNA sequencing
process used to determine the order of nucleotides in a DNA fragment
DNA fingerprint
a unique set of certain DNA fragments that we have inherited from our parents in a Mendelian pattern
transgenic organisms
gene(s) from one species is injected into a fertilized egg, creating a new species
recombinant DNA
DNA created by cutting and splicing DNA from different species then inserting the modified molecules into cells that can replicate
genome
all the DNA in a haploid set of a species' chromosomes.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
fast way using computers to copy DNA
gene therapy
aims to replace mutated genes with normal ones
gel electrophoresis
a method for separating molecules (ie DNA, RNA or proteins) through a gel by their physical or chemical properties.
clone
identical copy made from DNA of parent
simple epithelium
single layer of cells lining body cavities, ducts and tubes
pseudostratified epithelium
single cell layer that looks like a multiple layer when viewed from the side because the nuclei of neighboring cells are staggered
superior
toward the head
proximal
closer to the center of the body than another part
anterior
referring to the front of the body
frontal
plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse
across the body from side to side; divides the body into inferior and superior parts
stratified epithelium
has more than one cell layer, generally used for protection
hyaline cartilage
makes up parts of nose, ribs and wind-pipe; matrix is thickly laced with small collagen fibers
inferior
situated below and closer to the feet than another body part
distal
farthest from trunk or from point of origin of a body part
posterior
at or near back of body
midsagittal
plane that divides the body into left and right halves
appendicular skeleton
bones of the limbs, hips and shoulders
bone remodeling
process of ongoing mineral deposits and withdrawals from bone that adjusts bone strength and maintains levels of calcium and phosphorus in blood
cartilaginous joint
type of joint in which cartilage fills the space between adjoining bones
ligament
straplike dense connective tissue that connects bones at the joints
tendonitis
repetitive motion injury in which tendons and synovial membranes around joints become inflamed
axial skeleton
bones of the skull, backbone, ribs and breastbone
compact bone
dense bone tissue that looks solid and smooth
synovial joint
freely movable joint in which adjoining bones are separated by a fluid-filled cavity and stabilized by straplike ligaments
tendon
cord or strap of dense, regular conncective tissue that attaches a muscle to bone or to another muscle.
carpal tunnel syndrome
repetitive motion injury in which the tendons become inflamed and press on a nerve in the wrist resulting in numbness, tingling and pain in the fingers
bone marrow
connective tissue in the bones where blood cells are formed
spongy bone
bone tissue inside a long bone's shaft and at its ends
fibrous joint
joints in which fibrous connective tissue unites the bones
osteoarthritis
condition in which cartilage covering the bone ends of freely movable joints wears off causing painful inflammation
actin
a globular contractile protein nside a sarcomere, looks like a pearl, works with myosin to bring about contraction
muscle fatigue
state in which a muscle cannot contract, even if it is being stimulated.
sliding-filament model
for contraction; all of the myosin filaments stay in place. they use short, ATP-driven power strokes to slide the sets of actin filaments over them, toward the sarcomere's center
oxygen debt
results when muscles use more ATP than aerobic respiration can deliver
myosin
thick filament inside a sarcomere; protein molecules with a tail and a double head
anabolic steroid
substance that can produce a dramatic increase in muscle mass
andro
Short for androstenedione, a normal precursor to testosterone and other androgens. Taking andro can raise testosterone levels
botox
A substance derived from botulinum toxin that works by preventing nerve impulses from reaching the muscle, causing the muscle to relax
creatine
organic compound that transfers phosphate to ADP in a rapid, short-term, ATP generating pathway
absorption
digested nutrients and fluid pass across the tube wall and into blood or lymph
gallbladder
stores and concentrates bile that the liver secretes
peristalsis
waves of muscle contraction that help push the food bolus onward
large intestine
concentrates and stores undigested matter by absorbing mineral ions, water;
villus
absorptive fingers on the folds of the intestinal mucosa
chyme
mixture of a swallowed bolus and gastric fluid
liver
secretes bile for emulifying fat; roles in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism
stomach
muscular sac, streetches to store food taken in faster than can be processed, creates gastric fluid to create chyme and kill pathogens
colon
also known as large intestine
esophagus
muscular, salive-moistened tube that moves food from pharynx to stomach
pancreas
secretes enzymes that break down all major food molecules; secretes buffers aganst HCI from the stomach. Secretes insulin, a hormonal control of glucose metabolism
small intestine
abosrbs all major nutrients and delivers unabsorbed material to large intestine
salivary gland
3 main pairs that secrete saliva a fluid with polysaccharide digesting enzymes, buffers and mucus
ABO blood typing
process used to determine blood type
plasma
makes up 55% of whole blood, mostly water, transports blood cells and platelets and other substances
Rh blood typing
used to determine the presence of the Rh factor
mononucleosis
from the epstein barr virus, typically known as the kissing disease
anemia
sign that red blood cells, with their cargoes of hemoglobin are not delivering enough oxygen to meet the body's needs
platelet
membrane bound fragments that release substances to initiate blood clotting
white blood cell
AKA leukocytes, fight infection,
leukemia
white blood cell cancer
hemostasis
process that stops bleeding and prevents excessive blood loss, includes spasms in affected blood vessels, formation of platelet plugs and the coagulation or clotting of blood
red blood cell
About 45 % of whole blood, aka erythrocytes, carries hemoglobin to transport oxygen
hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in the red blood cells that transports oxygen
cardiovascular system
made up of heart and blood vessels
pulmonary artery
carries blood from the heart to lungs
vena cava
collects blood from the upper and lower parts of the body
diastole
relaxation phase of the heart beat
carotid artery
artery in the neck that contains baroreceptors, which monitor arterial pressure
carotid artery
artery in the neck that contains baroreceptors, which monitor arterial pressure
coronary arteries
two arteries leading to capillaries that service cardiac muscle
cardiac cycle
sequence of muscle contraction and relaxation constituting one heart beat
capillary bed
dense capillary networks containing true capillaries where exchanges occur between blood and tissues, also thoroughfare channels that link arterioles and venules
pulmonary vein
returns oxygenated blood to the heart's left atrium
aorta
main artery of systemic circulation; carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to all body regions except the lungs
systole
contraction phase of the heart beat
SA node
sinoatrial node; generates waves of excitation causing the atria to contract
AV node
atriventricular node; located in the septum, slows the stimulator a little
atherosclerosis
condition in which cholesterol and other lipids build up in the arterial wall
pathogen
general name for viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and parasitic worms that cause disease
phagocytic white cells
macrophage or other white blood cell that engulfs and destroys foreign agents.
immunological memory
body's capacity to make a secondary immune response to a later encounter with the same type of antigen that provoked the primary response
active immunization
a vaccine (prepared substance containing an antigen) is injected into the body or taken orally, sometimes according to a schedule
autoimmune response
immune system's powerful weapons are unleashed against normal body cells or proteins
blood pressure
fluid pressure, generated by heart contractions, that keeps blood circulating
HDL
High density lipoprotein in blood, transports cholesterol to the liver for further processing - good cholesterol
LDL
low density lipoprotein, excess amounts contribute to atherosclerosis
immune response
third line of defense, occurs when lymphosytes recognize an invading pathogen and mount a specific response against the particular pathogen
antibody
Y shaped receptor molecules with binding sites for specific antigens, only produced by B cells
histamine
local signaling molecule that fans inflammation; makes arterioles dilate and capillaries more permeable (leaky)
passive immunization
temporary immunity conferred by deliberately introducing antibodies into the body
hypertension
elevated blood pressure can be associated with atherosclerosis and kidney disease
histamine
local signaling molecule that fans inflammation; makes arterioles dilate and capillaries more permeable (leaky)
T cells
launch cell mediated attacks on infected cells by releasing chemical weapons
B cells
launch atibody-mediated response by mounting a chemical counter-attack in the form of antibodies
vaccine
prepared substance that contains an antigen and is usually injected into the body to ward off a particular disease
allergy
immune response to substances called allergens
alveolus (plural alveoli)
tiny air sacs that bulge out from the walls of the respiratory bronchioles
expiration
exhalation; breath moves out
oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)
hemolobin with oxygen attached to it
lung cancer
tumors develop in lung tissue, with resulting loss of respiratory surface for gas exchange
tuberculosis
destruction of patches of lung tissue; possible spread of infection to other parts of the body, was rare in US, now noting a comeback with AIDS patients
bronchus
airway leading from trachea to the lung, epithelial lining includes mucus-secreting cells and cilia
inspiration
inhalation; draws of breaths of air into the airways
tidal volume
amount of air that enters or leaves your lungs in a normal breath
bronchitis
brought on when air pollution increases mucus secretions and interferes with ciliary action in the lungs, especially sensitive to cigarette smoke
emphysema
lungs become so distended and inelastic that gases cannot be exchanged efficiently
diaphragm
muscle partition between the thoracic and abdominal cavities, the contraction and relaxation of which contributes to breathing.
lung
saclike organ that serves as an internal respiratory surface
vital capacity
maximum volume of air that can move out of the lungs after a person inhales as deeply as possible
pneumonia
respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
pulmonary embolism
blood clot in the artery leading to the lungs, blocks blood flow to the lungs, causes heart failure, collapse of the cardiovascular system
nephron
functional heart of the kidneys, structures that filter water and solutes from the blood
glomerulus
first portion of the nephron where water and solutes are filtered from blood
loop of Henle
the hairpin-shaped tubular region of a nephron that functions in reabsorption of water and solutes
filtration
process by which blood pressure forces water and solutes out of glomerular capillaries and into the cupped portion of a nephron wall (glomerular capsule)
urinary bladder
storage organ for urine
bowman's capsule
cup-shaped portion of a nephron that receives water and solutes being filtered from blood
peritubular capillaries
set of blood capillaries that threads around the tubular parts of a nephron
reabsorption
diffusion or active transport of water and usable solutes out of a nephron and iinto capillaries leading back to the general ciruculation
urethra
tube that carries urine from the bladder to the body surface
proximal tubule
tubular region of a nephron that receives water and solutes filtered from the blood
distal tubule
tubular section of a nephron most distant from the glomerulus; a major site of water and sodium reabsorption
secretion
when a cell releases a substance across a plasma membrane into the surroundings
action potential
abrupt brief reversal in the steady voltage difference across the plasma membrane of a neuron
dendrite
short slender extension from the cell body of a neuron
neurotransmitter
signaling molecule secreted from neurons; act on adjacent cell
sensory neuron
any of the nerve cells that act as sensory receptors, detecting specific stimuli and relaying signals to the brain and spinal cord
sodium-potassium pump
transport protein spanning the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane; when activated by ATP, its shape changes and it selectively transports sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions in
caffeine and amphetamines
stimulant, increases alertness and physical activity at first, then depresses you
amphetamines
need
axon
long cylindrical extension from the cell body, with finely branched endings. when action potentials arrive at these endings, they trigger the release of neurotransmitters
interneuron
neurons in the brain and spinal cord that integrate information arriving from sensory neurons and that influence other neurons in turn
resting potential
the steady voltage difference across the plasma membrane of neurons and other excitable cells that are not being stimulated
autonomic nerve
nerves leading from CNS to muscle and glands of internal organs
all-or-nothing event
principle that states that individual cells in a muscle's motor units always contract fully in response to proper stimulation; if the stimulus is below a certain threshold the cells do not respond at all
chemical synapse
a narrow gap between a neuron's output zone and the input zone of a neighboring cell
motor neuron
relay signals from interneurons to the body's effectors-muscles and glands-that carry out the specified responses
epilepsy
seizure disorder that can be caused by brain injury birth trauma or other assaults
acetylcholine
neurotransmitter that can excite or inhibit different target cells in the brain, spinal cord, glands, and muscles
reflex arc
neural pathway in which signals from sensory neurons directly stimulate or inhibit motor neurons without inter-vention by interneurons
mechanoreceptor
sensory cell or cell part that detects mechanical energy associated with changes in pressure, position, or acceleration
chemoreceptor
sensory receptor that detects chemical energy (ions or molecules) dissolved in the surrounding fluid
referred pain
when receptors in some internal organs detect painful stimuli, the brain projects the sensation to certain skin areas instead of localizing the pain at the organs
thermoreceptor
sensory cell that can detect radiant energy associated with temperature
photoreceptor
a light sensitive sensory cell
olfactory receptor
receptors in the nasal epithelium that detect water-soluble or volatile substances
retina
a thin layer of neural tissue in the eye that contains densely packed photoreceptors
pain receptor
nociceptors - detects tissue damage
pain
perceived injury to some body region
pheromone
signaling molecules with roles in animals' social interactions
hormones
any of the signaling molecules secreted from endocrine glands, cells and neurons
biological clock
internal time-measuring mechanism that has a role in adjusting an organism's daily activities, seasonal activities, or both in response to environmental cues.
hypothalamus
brain center that monitors visceral activities
pineal gland
a light-sensitive endocrine gland that secretes melatonin, a hormone that influences reproductive cycles and the development of reproductive organs
testis
male gonad; primary reproductive organ in which male gametes and sex hormones are produced.
seminal vesicle
part of the male reproductive system; secretes fructose that nourishes sperm
penis
male organ that deposits sperm into the female reproductive tract, also houses the urethra
oocytes
an immature egg
uterus
chamber in which the developing embryo is contained and nurtured during pregnancy
menstrual cycle
the cyclic release of oocytes and priming of the endometrium to receive a fertilized egg
epididymis
a coiled segment of the spermatic ducts that serves to store, mature and transport spermatozoa between the testis and the vas (the vas deferens).
prostate gland
gland in males that wraps around the urethra and ejaculatory ducts, secretions become part of semen
semen
sperm-bearing fluid expelled from the penis during male orgasm
ovary
primary female reproductive organ, where eggs form
cervix
secretes mucus that enhances sperm movement into uterus and reduces embryo's risk of bacterial infection
follicle
primary oocyte together with the surrounding layer of cells
vas deferens
pair of thick-walled tubes through which sperm is propelled from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts
urethra
dual-purpose duct; serves as channel for ejaculation of sperm during sexual arousal; also for urine excretion at other times
testosterone
governs the growth, form, and function of the male reproductive tract; stimulates sexual behavior and promotes the development of facial hair growth and deepening of the voice at puberty
oviduct
one of a pair of ciliated channels through which oocytes are conducted from an ovary to the uterus; usual site of fertilization
vagina
organ of sexual intercourse; also serves as birth canal
estrogen
sex hormone that helps oocytes mature, induces changes in the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy and influences body growth and development