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217 Cards in this Set

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ablation
Surgical excision or amputation of a body part or tissue.
acantholysis
Disruption of the intercellular connections between keratinocytes of the epidermis, caused by lysis of intercellular cement substance, resulting in secondary disruption of desmosomes and often in a defined sequence of cellular degenerative events.
achlasia
The failure of a ring of muscle fibers, such as a sphincter of the esophagus, to relax.
acral
Of, relating to, or affecting peripheral parts, such as limbs, fingers, or ears.
adenoma
A benign epithelial tumor having a glandular origin and structure.
adhesion
A fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures.
adjuvant
A substance that, when added to a medicine, speeds or improves its action.
adnexa
Accessory or adjoining anatomical parts, as ovaries and oviducts in relation to the uterus.
adventitia
The membranous outer covering of an organ or a blood vessel.
amyloid
A hard waxy deposit consisting of protein and polysaccharides that results from the degeneration of tissue.
anaphylaxis
Hypersensitivity, especially in animals to a substance, such as foreign protein or a drug, that is caused by exposure to a foreign substance after a preliminary exposure.
anaplasia
Hypersensitivity, especially in animals to a substance, such as foreign protein or a drug, that is caused by exposure to a foreign substance after a preliminary exposure.
anaplasty
The surgical repair or replacement of damaged organs, tissue, or body parts.
anastomosis
1. The connection of separate parts of a branching system to form a network, as of leaf veins, blood vessels, or a river and its branches.
2. The surgical connection of separate or severed tubular hollow organs to form a continuous channel, as between two parts of the intestine.
aneurysm
A blood-filled sac formed by the dilatation of the wall of an artery, a vein or the heart.
angioedema
Recurring episodes of noninflammatory swelling of the skin, mucous membranes, viscera, and brain, occasionally accompanied by arthralgia, purpura, or fever.
anisocoria
Unequal size of the pupils.
anisokaryosis
Variation in size of nuclei, greater than the normal range for a tissue.
antrum
A nearly closed cavity or chamber, especially in a bone.
apical
Relating to or located at the tip (an apex).
aplasia
Defective development resulting in the absence of all or part of an organ or tissue.
apneusis
A condition marked by maintained inhalational activity unrelieved by exhaling, each inhalation being long and cramplike.
aponeurosis
A sheetlike fibrous membrane, resembling a flattened tendon, that serves as a fascia to bind muscles together or as a means of connecting muscle to bone.
apophysis
A natural swelling, projection, or outgrowth of an organ or part, such as the process of a vertebra.
asthenia
Loss or lack of bodily strength; weakness; debility.
atheroma
A deposit or degenerative accumulation of lipid-containing plaques on the innermost layer of the wall of an artery.
atelectasis
A term used to describe partial or complete collapse of the lung, usually due to an obstruction of a bronchus.
atopy
A probably hereditary allergy characterized by symptoms (as asthma, hay fever, or hives) produced upon exposure to the exciting antigen without inoculation.
atresia
The congenital absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular passage such as the anus, intestine, or external ear canal.
autolysis
The destruction of cells or tissues by their own enzymes, as after death or in some diseases.
avulsion
The tearing away of a structure or part by surgical traction or by accident.
azotemia
Accumulation in the blood of nitrogen-bearing waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine.
bacteremia
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the bloodstream.
blepharitis
Inflammation of the eyelids.
blood dyscrasia
A diseased state of the blood, usually one in which the blood contains permanent abnormal cellular elements.
borborygmus
A rumbling noise produced by the movement of gas through the intestines.
buffy coat
The white band of concentrated white blood cells between the red blood cells and plasma in a microhematocrit tube.
bulla
1. A hollow thin-walled rounded bony prominence.

2. A large vesicle or blister.
bursa
A sac or saclike bodily cavity, especially one containing a viscous lubricating fluid and located between a tendon and a bone or at points of friction between moving structures.
cachexia
A condition of ill health and impairment of nutrition due to impoverishment of the blood, esp. when caused by a specific morbid process (as cancer or tubercle).
calcinosis
An abnormal condition in which calcium salts are deposited in a part or tissue of the body.
canaliculus
A small canal or duct in the body, such as the minute channels in compact bone.
cancellous
Having an open, latticed, or porous structure. Used especially of bone.
cannula
A flexible tube, usually containing a trocar at one end, that is inserted into a bodily cavity, duct, or vessel to drain fluid or administer a substance such as a medication.
cardiac tamponade
Acute compression of the heart due to fluid effusion or hemorrhage into the pericardium.
catalepsy
A trancelike state with loss of voluntary motion and failure to react to stimuli.
cataract
Opacity of the lens or capsule of the eye, causing impairment of vision or blindness.
catarrh
Inflammation of a mucous membrane, esp. of the respiratory tract, accompanied by excessive secretions.
cellulitis
A spreading inflammation of subcutaneous or connective tissue.
cheilitis
Inflammation affecting the lips.
chemosis
Edema of the mucous membrane of the eyeball and eyelid lining.`
chorion
The outer membrane enclosing the embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals. In placental mammals it contributes to the development of the placenta.
chyle
A turbid, white or pale yellow fluid taken up by the lacteals from the intestine during digestion and carried by the lymphatic system via the thoracic duct into the circulation.
cirrhosis
1. Liver disease characterised pathologically by loss of the normal microscopic lobular architecture, with fibrosis and nodular regeneration.

2. Chronic interstitial inflammation of any tissue or organ.
clonus
An abnormality in neuromuscular activity characterized by rapidly alternating muscular contraction and relaxation.
coagulopathy
A defect in the blood clotting mechanism.
colic
A paroxysm of acute abdominal pain localized in a hollow organ and often caused by spasm, obstruction, or twisting.
collarette
A narrow rim of loosened keratin overhanging the periphery of a circumscribed skin lesion, attached to the normal surrounding skin.
colloid
A substance consisting of particles that are dispersed throughout another substance and are too small for resolution with an ordinary light microscope but are incapable of passing through a semipermeable membrane.
comminuted
Broken into several pieces; denoting especially a fractured bone.
condyle
A rounded prominence at the end of a bone, most often for articulation with another bone: occipital condyles of the skull, condyles of the humerus, femur, and tibia.
cornification
The conversion of squamous epithelial cells into a keratinized horny material, such as hair, nails, or feathers.
corpus luteum
A yellow, progesterone-secreting mass of cells that forms from an ovarian follicle after the release of a mature egg.
cotyledon
One of the patches of villi found in some forms of placenta.
crenation
A process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, undergo shrinkage and acquire a notched or scalloped surface.
crepitus
A crinkly, crackling or grating feeling or sound in the joints, skin or lungs.
curette
A surgical instrument shaped like a scoop or spoon, used to remove tissue or growths from a body cavity.
cytology
The branch of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function of cells.
cytopenia
A reduction in the number of cells circulating in the blood.
deglutition
The act or process of swallowing.
dentate
Having a toothed margin or toothlike projections or processes.
dermatophyte
Any of various fungi that can cause parasitic skin infections.
desmosome
A structure that forms the site of adhesion between two cells, consisting of a dense plate in each adjacent cell separated by a thin layer of extracellular material.
detumescence
Reduction or lessening of a swelling, especially the restoration of a swollen organ or part to normal size.
diaphysis
The shaft (body) of a long bone.
diastema
1. A fissure or abnormal opening in a part, especially when congenital.

2. A gap or space between two adjacent teeth in the same dental arch.
diathesis
A hereditary predisposition of the body to a disease, a group of diseases, an allergy, or another disorder.
diverticulum
A pouch or sac branching out from a hollow organ or structure, such as the intestine.
dropsy
An unnatural collection of serous fluid in any serous cavity of the body, or in the subcutaneous cellular tissue; edema.
dyskinesia
An impairment in the ability to control movements, characterized by spasmodic or repetitive motions or lack of coordination.
dysmetria
An aspect of ataxia, in which the ability to control the distance, power, and speed of an act is impaired. Usually used to describe abnormalities of movement caused by cerebellar disorders.
dysplasia
Abnormal development or growth of tissues, organs, or cells.
dystrophy
A degenerative disorder caused by inadequate or defective nutrition.
ecchymosis
The passage of blood from ruptured blood vessels into subcutaneous tissue, marked by a purple discoloration of the skin.
eclampsia
Coma and convulsions during or immediately after pregnancy, characterized by edema, hypertension, and proteinuria.
ectasia
A dilatation of a hollow organ or of a canal.
ectopia
An abnormal location or position of an organ or a body part, occurring congenitally or as the result of injury.
effusion
The seeping of serous, purulent, or bloody fluid into a body cavity or tissue.
embolism
The sudden blocking of an artery by a clot or foreign material which has been brought to its site of lodgment by the blood current.
emphysema
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs, applied especially to such a condition of the lungs.
empyema
The presence of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural cavity.
endophytic
Tending to grow inward into tissues in fingerlike projections from a superficial site of origin; used of tumors.
epicondyle
A rounded projection at the end of a bone, located on or above a condyle and usually serving as a place of attachment for ligaments and tendons: lateral epicondyle of the humerus or femur.
epiphora
Watering of the eyes due to a blockage of the lacrimal ducts or the excessive secretion of tears.
epiphysis
The end of a long bone that is originally separated from the main bone by a layer of cartilage but later becomes united to the main bone through ossification.
epitope
The surface portion of an antigen capable of eliciting an immune response and of combining with the antibody produced to counter that response.
epulis
Inflammatory cellular proliferation or a tumorlike growth of the gum.
erosion
A break in the continuity of the epidermis that does not penetrate the basement membrane.
eructation
The act or an instance of belching.
eschar
A dry scab or slough formed on the skin as a result of a burn or by the action of a corrosive or caustic substance.
excoriation
A scratch or abrasion of the skin.
exophthalmos
Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball.
exophytic
Tending to grow outward beyond the surface epithelium from which it originates; used of tumors.
expectoration
The act of coughing up and spitting out materials from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
extravasation
A discharge or escape, as of blood, from a vessel into the tissues.
facet
A small, smooth, flat surface, as on a bone or tooth.
fascicle
A bundle of anatomical fibers, as of muscle or nerve. Also called fasciculus.
fenestration
1. A natural or surgically created opening in a surface.

2. The presence of such openings.

3. The surgical creation of an artificial opening in the bony part of the inner ear to improve or restore hearing.
fibrosis
Development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ.
fimbriated
Having the edge or extremity fringed or bordered by slender processes.
fissure
1. A normal groove or furrow, as in the liver or brain, that divides an organ into lobes or parts.

2. Linear split through the epidermis into the underlying dermis.
fistula
An abnormal duct or passage resulting from injury, disease, or a congenital disorder that connects an abscess, cavity, or hollow organ to the body surface or to another hollow organ.
fomite
An inanimate object or substance that is capable of transmitting infectious organisms from one individual to another.
fontanelle
Any of the soft membranous gaps between the incompletely formed cranial bones of a fetus or an infant.
foramen
An opening or orifice, as in a bone or in the covering of the ovule of a plant.
fossa
A small cavity or depression, as in a bone.
fovea
1. A small cuplike depression or pit in a bone or organ.

2. A small rodless area of the retina that affords acute vision.
fulminant
Occurring suddenly, rapidly, and with great severity or intensity.
fundus
The bottom or base of any hollow organ; the fundus of the bladder; the fundus of the eye.
furuncle
A painful, circumscribed pus-filled inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue usually caused by a local staphylococcal infection. Also called boil.
fusiform
Tapering at each end; spindle-shaped.
gavage
Introduction of nutritive material into the stomach by means of a tube.
glabrous
Having no hairs; smooth.
granulation
The formation of a small mass of tiny red granules of newly forming capillaries, as on the surface of a wound that is healing.
groove
A long, narrow furrow accommodating a vessel, nerve, or tendon.
grub
The thick wormlike larva of certain beetles and other insects.
guttural
Of or relating to the throat.
hematoma
A localized collection of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space or tissue, due to a break in the wall of a blood vessel.
hernia
The protrusion of a loop or knuckle of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening.
hilus
A depression or fissure where vessels or nerves or ducts enter a bodily organ; the hilus of the kidney.
hygroma
A cystic swelling containing a serous fluid.
hypercapnia
A condition marked by an unusually high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood as a result of hypoventilation.
hyperemia
An increase in the quantity of blood flow to a body part; engorgement.
hyperesthesia
An abnormal or pathological increase in sensitivity to sensory stimuli, as of the skin to touch or the ear to sound.
hyperplasia
An abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or a tissue with consequent enlargement.
hyphema
Hemorrhage into the anterior chamber of the eye.
hypovolemia
An abnormally decreased volume of circulating blood in the body; the most common cause is hemorrhage.
hypoxemia
Insufficient oxygenation of the blood.
hypoxia
Deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching body tissues.
indurated
Hardened, as a soft tissue that becomes extremely firm.
infarct
An area of tissue that undergoes necrosis as a result of obstruction of local blood supply, as by a thrombus or embolus.
inotropic
Affecting the force or energy of muscular contractions.
inspissated
Being thickened, dried, or rendered less fluid.
intima
The innermost membrane of an organ or part, especially the inner lining of a lymphatic vessel, an artery, or a vein.
ischemia
A decrease in the blood supply to a bodily organ, tissue, or part caused by constriction or obstruction of the blood vessels.
keratitis
Inflammation of the cornea.
labile
Constantly undergoing or likely to undergo change; unstable: a labile compound.
lavage
The washing out of an organ, as the stomach, intestinal tract, or sinuses.
lordosis
An abnormal forward curvature of the spine in the lumbar region.
luxation
Complete dislocation of a joint.
maceration
The softening of a solid by soaking.
macule
A discolored lesion on the skin that is not elevated above the surface.
marsupialization
Surgical alteration of a cyst or similar enclosed cavity by making an incision and suturing the flaps to the adjacent tissue, creating a pouch.
meatus
A natural body opening or passage: external auditory meatus.
mediastinum
The space in the thoracic cavity behind the sternum and in between the two pleural sacs (containing the lungs).
meniscus
A cartilage disk that acts as a cushion between the ends of bones that meet in a joint.
mesentery
A double layer of peritoneum attached to the abdominal wall and enclosing in its fold certain organs of the abdominal viscera.
metaplasia
1. Normal transformation of tissue from one type to another, as in the ossification of cartilage to form bone.

2. Transformation of cells from a normal to an abnormal state.
miosis
Constriction of the pupil of the eye, resulting from a normal response to an increase in light or caused by certain drugs or pathological conditions.
mydriasis
Prolonged abnormal dilatation of the pupil of the eye caused by disease or a drug.
myoclonus
A sudden twitching of muscles or parts of muscles, without any rhythm or pattern, occurring in various brain disorders.
necrosis
Death of cells or tissues through injury or disease, especially in a localized area of the body.
nidus
1. A central point or focus of bacterial growth in a living organism.

2. A point or place at which something originates, accumulates, or develops, as the center around which calculi form.
nociception
The perception of injurious stimuli, as by nerve centers.
nodule
A solid elevation of the skin greater than 1 cm in diameter that usually extends into the deeper skin layers.
nystagmus
A rapid, involuntary, oscillatory motion of the eyeball.
obstipation
Severe constipation caused by intestinal obstruction.
obturator
1. An organic structure, such as the soft palate, that closes an opening in the body.

2. A prosthetic device serving to close an opening in the body.
occult
1. Detectable only by microscopic examination or chemical analysis, as a minute blood sample.

2. Not accompanied by readily detectable signs or symptoms: occult carcinoma.
omentum
One of the folds of the peritoneum that connect the stomach with other abdominal organs.
oncotic
Pertaining to, caused by or marked by swelling.
opisthotonus
Spasm of the body where the head and heels are bent backward and the body is bowed forward. A type of extrapyramidal effect.
orchiectomy
Surgical removal of one or both testes.
panosteitis
Inflammation of an entire bone.
papilloma
A small benign epithelial tumor, such as a wart, consisting of an overgrowth of cells on a core of smooth connective tissue.
papule
A small, solid, usually inflammatory elevation of the skin that does not contain pus.
parenchyma
Animal tissue that constitutes the essential part of an organ as contrasted with connective tissue and blood vessels.
parenteral
Taken into the body or administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract, as by intravenous or intramuscular injection.
paroxysm
1. A spasm or fit; a convulsion.

2. A sudden attack, recurrence, or intensification of a disease.
pedicle
A small stalk or stalklike structure, especially one supporting or connecting an organ or other body part.
peduncle
1. A stalklike bundle of nerve fibers connecting different parts of the brain.

2. The stalklike base to which a polyp or tumor is attached.
perfusion
The pumping of a fluid through an organ or tissue.
pernicious
Tending to cause death or serious injury; deadly: a pernicious virus.
physis
The plate of cartilage between the diaphysis and epiphyses of immature long bones. This is where lengthening of long bones takes place.
plication
A folding or putting together in pleats; specifically, an operation for reducing the size of a hollow viscus by taking folds or tucks in its walls.
polyp
A usually nonmalignant growth or tumor protruding from the mucous lining of an organ such as the nose, bladder, or intestine, often causing obstruction.
potentiate
1. To make potent or powerful.

2. To enhance or increase the effect of (a drug).

3. To promote or strengthen (a biochemical or physiological action or effect).
premunition
Relative immunity to severe infection by a particular pathogen as a result of a chronic low-grade infection by the same pathogen.
prolapse
1. To fall or slip out of place.

2. The falling down or slipping out of place of an organ or part, such as the uterus.
proprioception
The ability to sense the position and location and orientation and movement of the body and its parts.
proptosis
Forward displacement of an organ, especially an eyeball.
ptyalism
Excessive secretion of saliva.
purpura
A condition characterized by hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes that result in the appearance of purplish spots or patches.
pustule
A small circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus and having an inflamed base.
purulent
Containing, discharging, or causing the production of pus: a purulent infection.
recrudescence
Reappearance of disease in a host whose infection has been quiescent.
retinaculum
A local thickening of deep fascia that holds tendons in place.
saponification
The hydrolysis of a fat by alkali with the formation of a soap and glycerol.
sclerosis
1. A thickening or hardening of a body part, as of an artery, especially from excessive formation of fibrous interstitial tissue.

2. A disease characterized by this thickening or hardening.
sepsis
The presence of pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the blood or tissues.
septicemia
A systemic disease caused by pathogenic organisms or their toxins in the bloodstream.
septum
A thin partition or membrane that divides two cavities or soft masses of tissue in an organism: the nasal septum; the atrial septum of the heart.
serosa
A thin continuous membrane lining the closed cavity of the body and covering the cavity's organs.
strabismus
A visual defect in which one eye cannot focus with the other on an objective because of imbalance of the eye muscles.
subluxation
Incomplete or partial dislocation of a bone in a joint.
syncytium
A multinucleated mass of cytoplasm that is not separated into individual cells.
thrombosis
The obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot formed at the site of obstruction.
tomography
Any of several techniques for making detailed x-rays of a predetermined plane section of a solid object while blurring out the images of other planes.
transudate
A plasma derived fluid substance which has passed through a membrane or has been extruded from a tissue, sometimes as a result of inflammation.
trochlea
An anatomical structure resembling a pulley: trochlea of the femur.
tubercle
A small rounded nodule, lesion, or prominence attached to bone, mucous membrane, or skin.
ungual
1. Of, resembling, or bearing a hoof, nail, or claw.

2. Of or relating to fingernails or toenails.
valgus
1. Lateral deviation of the bones distal to the joint in question.

2. A bone of the leg or foot characterized by such an abnormality.
varicose
Abnormally swollen or knotted: varicose veins.
varus
1. Medial deviation of the bones distal to the joint in question.

2. A bone of the leg or foot characterized by such an abnormality.
vesicle
1. A small sac or cyst, especially one containing fluid.

2. A serum-filled blister formed in or beneath the skin
vestibule
A cavity, chamber, or channel that leads to or is an entrance to another cavity: the vestibule to the ear.