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123 Cards in this Set

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arteriole
small artery
Bowman capsule
cup-shaped capsule surrounding each glomerulus
calyx or calix
(plural: calyces or calices)
cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis
catheter
tube for injecting or removing fluids
cortex
outer region; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney (cortical means pertaining to the cortex)
creatinine
a waste product of muscle metabolism; nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
electrolyte
a chemical that carries an electrical charge in a solution
Examples are potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+)
erythropoietin (EPO)
a hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells
filtration
passive process whereby some substances pass through a filter or other material; blood pressure forces materials through the filter
glomerulus
(plural: glomeruli)
tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels)in cortex of kidney
hilum
depression or pit in that part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
kidney
one of two bean-shaped organs located behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region
meatus
opening or canal
medulla
inner region; the renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney (medullary means pertaining to the medulla)
micturition
urination; the act of voiding
nephron
the combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney
nitrogenous waste
substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine
potassium (K+)
a salt (electrolyte) secreted from the bloodstream into the renal tubules to leave the body in urine
reabsorption
in this process, the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream
renal artery
carries blood to the kidney
renal pelvis
central collecting region in the kidney
renal tubule
-microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration
-in the renal tubule, the composition of urine is altered by the processes of reabsorption and secretion
renal vein
carries blood away from the kidney
renin
an enzymatic hormone synthesized, stored and secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels)
sodium
(Na+)
a salt (electrolyte) regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys
trigone
triangular area in the bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits
urea
major nitrogenous waste product excreted in urine
ureter
tube leading from each kidney to the bladder
urethra
tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body
uric acid
nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
urinary bladder
sac that holds urine
urination
process of expelling urine; also called micturition
voicing
emptying of urine fromt he urinary bladder; urination or micturition
purulent
pus-filled
bulbourethral gland
one of a pair of exocrine glands near the male urethra
Cowper gland
bulbourethral gland
ejaculation
ejection of sperm and fluid from the male urethra
ejaculatory duct
tube through which semen enters the urethra
epididymis
(plural: epididymides)
-one of a pair of long, tightly coiled tubes lying on top of each testis
-it carries sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the vas deferens
erectile dysfunction
inability of an adult male to achieve an erection; impotence
flagellum
hair-like projection on a sperm cell that makes it motile (able to move)
fraternal twins
two infants born of the same pregnancy from two separate ova fertilized by two different sperm
glans penis
sensitive tip of the penis
identical twins
-two infants resulting from division of one fertilized egg into two distinct embryos
-conjoined(Siamese) twins are incompletely separated identical twins
interstitial cells of the testis
-cells that lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce the hormone testosterone
-a pituitary gland hormone (luteinizing hormone (LH)) stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone
parenchyma
-tissue composed of the essential cells of any organ
-in the testes, parenchymal tissue includes seminiferous tubules that produce sperm
perineum
-area between the anus and scrotum in the male
-area between the anus and the vagina in the female
prepuce
(foreskin)
skin covering the tip of the penis
prostate gland
gland, in men, at the base of the urinary bladder that secretes a fluid into the urethra during ejaculation
scrotum
external sac that contains the testes in men
semen
spermatozoa and fluid (prostatic and other glandular secretions)
seminal vesicle
either of paired sac-like male glands that secrete a fluid into the vas deferens
seminiferous tubules
narrow, coiled tubules that produce sperm in the testes
spermatozoon
(plural: spermatozoa)
sperm cell
sterilization
any procedure rendering an individual incapable of reproduction

eg. vasectomy and tubal ligation
stroma
supportive, connective tissue of an organ, as distinguished from its parenchyma
testis
(plural: testes)
male gonad that produces spermatozoa and the hormone testosterone; testicle
testosterone
hormone secreted by the interstitial tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics
vas deferens
narrow tube (one on each side) that carries sperm from the epididymis into the body and toward the urethra

(also called ductus deferens)
adnexa uteri
fallopian tubes, ovaries, and supporting ligaments
amnion
innermost membrane around the developing embryo
areola
dark-pigmented area around the breast nipple
Bartholin glands
small exocrine glands at the vaginal orifice
cervix
lower, neck-like portion of hte uterus
chorion
outermost layer of the two membranes surrounding the embryo; it is part of the placenta
clitoris
organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior to the urinary meatus
coitus
sexual intercourse; copulation
corpus luteum
empty fraafian follicle that secretes estrogen and progesterone after release of the egg cell
cul-de-sac
region within the pelvis, midway between the rectum and the uterus
embryo
stage in prenatal development from implantation of the fertilized ovum until the second month of pregnancy
endometrium
inner mucous membrane lining the uterus
estrogen
hormone produced by the ovaries; responsible for promoting female secondary sex characteristics
fallopian tubes
uterine tubes
one of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus
fertilization
union of the sperm cell and ovum from which the embryo develops
fetus
embryo from the eighth week after fertilization until birth
fimbriae (plural)
finger-like projections at the end of the fallopian tubes
follicle-stimulating hormone
(FSH)
hormone produced by the pituitary gland; stimulates maturation of the ovum
gamete
male or female sexual reproductive cell; sperm cell or ovum
genitalia
reproductive organs
(also called genitals)
gestation
period from fertilization of the ovum to birth; pregnancy
gonad
organ in the male (testis) and female (ovary) that produces gametes
graafian follicle
-developing sac enclosing each ovum within the ovary
-only about 400 of these sacs mature in a woman's lifetime
gynecology
study of the female reproductive organs including the breasts
human chorionic gonadotropin
(HCG)
hormone produced by the placenta to sustain pregnancy by stimulating (-tropin) the mother's ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone
hymen
mucous membrane partially or completely covering the vaginal orifice
labia
-lips of the vagina
-labia majora are the larger, outermost lips
-labia minora are the smaller, innermost lips
lactiferous ducts
tubes that carry milk within the breast
luteinizing hormone
(LH)
hormone produced by the pituitary gland; promotes ovulation
mammary papilla
nipple of the breast
menarche
beginning of the first mentrual period during puberty
menopause
gradual ending of menstruation
menstruation
-monthly shedding of the uterine lining
-menses is the normal flow of blood and tissue that occurs during menstruation
myometrium
muscle layer lining the uterus
neonatology
branch of medicine that concentrates on the care of the newborn (neonate)
obstetrics
branch of medicine convered with pregnancy and childbirth
orifice
an opening
ovary
-one of a pair of female organs (gonads) on each side of the pelvis
-almond-shaped, size of large walnuts
-produce egg cells (ova) and hormones
ovulation
release of the ovum from the ovary
ovum
(plural: ova)
egg cell; female gamete
pituitary gland
-endocrine gland at the base of the brain
-produces hormones to stimulate the ovaries
placenta
-vascular organ that develops during pregnancy in the uterine wall
-communication between maternal and fetal bloodstreams
pregnancy
growth and developmental process in a woman from fertilization through embryonic and fetal periods to birth; gestation
progesterone
hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary and the placenta of pregnant women
puberty
period of life when the ability to reproduce begins; secondary sex characteristics appear and gametes are produced
uterine serosa
outermost layer surrounding the uterus
uterus
-hollow, pear-shaped muscular female organ in which the embryo develops and from which menstruation occurs
-upper portion is the fundus; the middle portion is the corpus; and the lower, neck portion is the cervix
vagina
tube extending from the uterus to the exterior of the body
vulva
external genitalia of the female; includes the labia, hymen, and clitoris
fontanelle
the soft spot, normally present between the cranial bones of the fetus
albumin
protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood
antibody
-protein (immunoglobulin) produced by the lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens
-an antibody is specific to an antigen and inactivates it
antigen
a substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody
basophil
granulocytic white blood cell with granules that stain blue when exposed to a basic dye
bilirubin
-orange-yellow pigment in bile
-it is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die
coagulation
blood clotting
colony-stimulating factor
(CSF)
protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes)
differentiation
change in structure and function of a cell as i matures; specialization
electrophoresis
method of separating serum proteins by electrical charge
eosinophil
granulocytic white blood cell with granules that stain red with the acidic dye eosin; associated with allergic reactions
erythrocyte
-red blood cell
-there are about 5 million per microliter (uL) or cubic millimeter (mm3) of blood
erythropoietin
(EPO)
hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates formation of red blood cells
fibrin
protein threads that form the basis of a blood clot
fibrinogen
plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process