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100 Cards in this Set

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Abdominal girth
the measurement of the abdomen’s circumference, taken at the same place with each measurement
Acetest
a test that measures the presence of ketone (acetone bodies in the urine. A large quantity of acetone causes rapid change in the color of the Acetest tablet.
Aerobic
pertaining to the presence of air or oxygen.
Aldrete score
a scoring system used to determine a client’s baseline status
Anaerobic
pertaining to absence of air or oxygen
Ascites
effusion and accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity.
Aseptic technique
the methods used during client care to prevent microbial contamination
Aspirate
withdrawal of fluid or air into the barrel of a syringe or suction device
Aspiration
the entry of gastric contents into the tracheobronchial passages
Autolet
a small instrument with a lancet used to obtain capillary blood specimen
Biopsy
the removal and microscopic examination of tissue, performed to establish precise diagnosis
Blood culture
a laboratory test on serum to determine presence of infection in the blood
Bone marrow
specialized, soft tissue filling the spaces in cancellous bone of the epiphyses; responsible for red blood cell production
Cannula
a flexible tube containing a stiff, pointed trocar; the tube may be inserted into the body, guided by the trocar
Cerebrospinal fluid
– substance contained within the four ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid space, ant the central canal of the spinal cord
Clean-voided specimen
a technique used to collect a urine specimen as free from bacterial contamination as possible without catheterizing the client
Clinitest
a test that measures the amount of glucose and acetone in a urine specimen
Coagulopathy
a pathological condition affecting the ability of the blood to coagulate
Culture
laboratory test involving the cultivation of microorganisms or cells in a special growth medium
Cytological
pertaining to the study of cells, including their formation, origin, structure, function, biochemical activities, and pathology
Dead space
a cavity remaining in a wound
Debridement
removal of dead tissue in a wound
Dehiscence
the separation or opening of wound layers
Dysuria
pain or burning on urination, may also be accompanied with difficulty in urination
Ecchymosis
discoloration of an area of the skin or mucous membrane resulting from extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissues as a result of trauma to the underlying blood vessels or of fragility of the vessel walls
Epidural blood patch
procedure whereby a physician injects a small amount of autologous blood into the epidural space
Epithelialization
the process by which epidermal cells migrate over the wound’s surface to close the top or “resurface” the wound
Erythema
redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes, result of dilation and congestion of superficial capillaries
Eschar
scab or dry crust that results from excoriation of the skin
Evisceration
the separation of wound layers with the protrusion of abdominal organs through the wound layers
Excoriated
injury to the skin or other body part caused by scratching or abrasion
Expectorate
the act of coughing and spitting out mucus from the respiratory tract
Exudates
any fluid that has been extruded from a tissue or its capillaries, more specifically because of injury or inflammation
Fiberoptic
pertaining to fiberoptics; referring to the transmission of an image along flexible bundles of coated glass or plastic fibers having special optical properties
Frequency
symptom of urinary disorder involving repetitive voiding over a fixed time period
Glomerular filtration rate
a kidney function test that determines the amount of ultrafiltrate formed by plasma following through the glomeruli or the kidney
Glucose monitoring
a diagnostic test to determine the blood glucose level
Granulation
the presence of red, granular, moist tissue that appears during the healing of open wounds; type of tissue containing new blood vessels that bleed readily
Guaiac test
diagnostic test to detect blood in the stool
Hematoma
collection of extravasated blood trapped in the tissues of the skin or in an organ; results from trauma or incomplete coagulation
Hematuria
abnormal presence of blood in the urine
Hemolysis
the destruction of red blood cells
Hemostasis
termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means or by the coagulation process of the body
Herniation
the abnormal protrusion of an organ or other body structure through a defect or natural opening in a covering, membrane, muscle, or bone
Hydrocolloid
an adhesive, moldable wafer made of a carbohydrate-based material, usually with a waterproof backing
Intestinal obstruction
any obstruction that results in failure of the contents of the intestine to pass through the lumen of bowel
Intraabdominal pressure
amount of tension within the abdominal cavity
Intracranial pressure
pressure exerted by cerebrospinal fluid within the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Intravenous conscious sedation
the intravenous administration of pharmacological agents to provide a minimally depressed level of consciousness to provide comfort during diagnostic or treatment procedures
Ischemia
a decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body organ or part
Ketones
an organic chemical compound with two compounds attached to it
Lavage
the irrigation or washing out of an organ or cavity
Lumens
the hollow channel within a tube
Macerated
to soften, usually by soaking in water
Maceration
skin that becomes abnormally soft and breaks down because of prolonged exposure to moisture
Manometer
an instrument for measuring pressure or tension of liquids or gases
Meatus
any opening or tunnel through any part pf the body ( eg: the point at which the urethra opens to the skin
Medullary
of or pertaining to the medulla of the brain
Megakaryocyte
precursor of platelets found in blood marrow
Melena
darkening of the feces by blood pigments
Midstream
procedure in which the client initiates a stream, and then withdraws the cup before the stream of urine stops
Minimal sedation
lightest level of sedation; includes local and topical anesthetics and peripheral nerve blocks
Moderate sedation
a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which clients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation
Modified ramsay sedation scale
a numeric rating scale used to evaluate client’s level of sedation
Necrosis
localized tissue death
Neovascularization
the process by which the vascular network in a wound is generated A.K.A. angiogenesis
Occlusive dressing
a dressing that prevents air from reaching a wound or lesion and retains moisture, heat, body fluids, and medication
Occult blood
blood that appears from a nonspecific source, with obscure signs and symptoms
Percutaneous coronary intervention
procedures such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or directional coronary atherectomy performed during cardiac catheterization
Peritoneal fluid
substance in the abdominal cavity for lubrication of peritoneal membrane and internal organs
Ph
reflection of the hydrogen ion concentration of a liquid
Platelet
formed particle found in blood that relates directly to the ability of the blood to clot
Portal hypertension
an increased venous pressure in the portal circulation caused by compression or by occlusion at the portal or hepatic vascular system
Positive patient identification
a term that means the client is positively identified, usually via at least two identifiers, before the delivery of care
Precordial
of or pertaining to the precordium, which forms the region over the heart and the lower part of the thorax
Pressure dressing
a temporary treatment for the control of excessive bleeding; pressure dressings require elastic bandages to maintain the pressure and may also require the application of sandbags adjacent to the dressing to augment pressure
Pressure ulcer
a lesion that develops in the skin as a result of prolonged, unrelieved pressure
Radiopaque
not permitting the passage of x-rays or other radiant energy
Reactive hyperemia
– the return of blood to an area of tissue upon the release of externally applied pressure
Reagent
chemical used to indicate the presence of a particular substance
Renal
pertaining to the kidney
Risk assessment tool
evaluation protocols for assessing the likelihood for the development of pressure ulcers; two such protocols are the Braden scale and the Norton scale, which assess the following five risk factors; physical condition, mental state, activity, mobility, and incontinence
Secondary dressing
a dressing used to cover or hold primary dressings in place
Sensitivity
laboratory test used in conjunction with culture; it measures the response of microorganisms to antibiotics that have been placed on a culture plate
Shear
any tension that stretches the skin during turning or moving in bed
Slough
necrotic tissue in the process of separating from viable portions of the body
Stopcock
a valve that controls the flow of fluid or air through a tube
Subarachnoid space
situated or occurring between the arachnoid and the pia mater membranes, which cover the brain and spinal cord
Thrombocytopenia
a decrease in circulation platelets
Timed urine collection
the collection of urine for a specific period of time
Topical agents
pertaining to a drug or treatment applied to the surface part of the body
Tourniquet
an item used for the compression of blood vessels
Tracheobronchial tree
anatomical divisions of the respiratory tract, including the combination of trachea, bifurcations into the right and left mainstem bronchi, and subsequent bifurcations into smaller bronchi and bronchioles
Trocar
a sharp, pointed rod that fits inside a tube; used to pierce the skin and the wall of a cavity or canal in the body to aspirate fluids, to instill a medication or solution, or to guide the placement of a soft catheter
Undermining
condition of a wound in which the loss of underlying tissues is greater than the loss of the skin
Urgency
the need to void immediately
Vacutainer tube
a glass tube with a rubber stopper; air has been removed to create a vacuum
Venipuncture
technique in which a vein is punctured transcutaneously by a sharp rigid stylet (such as a butterfly needle), a cannula (such as an angiocatheter that contains a flexible plastic catheter), or a needle attached to a syringe
Void
the process of emptying the bladder of urine; urinate; micturate
Wound vacuum assisted closure
a type of therapy that speeds wound healing by applying localized negative pressure to draw the edges of a wound together