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37 Cards in this Set

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Monosaccharides
Carbohydrates of the general formula that typically form a single ring. (Simple Carbohydrate)
Disaccharides
Pairs of Monosaccharides linked together (Sucrose, Maltose, and Lactose)
Polysaccharides
Compounds composed of many Monosaccharides linked together. Complex Carbs (Starch, Fiber, Glycogen)
Gluconeogenesis
The making of glucose from a non-carbohydrate source.
Ketone Bodies
The product of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells.
Ketosis
An undesirable high concetration of Ketone Bodies in the blood and urine.
Insulin
A hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to increaded blood glucose concentration.
Glucagon
A hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to decreased blood glucose concentration.
Epinephrine
Release of glucose from liver glycogen stores. A hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response, aka adrenaline.
Hydrophobic
Water-Fearing (non-water soluble) ex. Fats
Hydrophilic
Water-Loving (water-soluble) ex. Enzymes for digesting fats.
Micelle
Tiny, spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion. Most contain bile salsts & fatty acids.
Lipoprotein
Clusters of Lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles for lipids in the lumph and blood
Essential Fatty Acids
Fatty Acids needed by the body but not made in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs.
Adipose Tissue
the body's fat tissue; consists of masses of triglyceride-storing cells.
Blood Lipid Profile
Results of blood tests that reveal a person's total cholesterol, triglycerides, and various lipoproteins.
Cardiovascular Disease
A general term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Atherosclerosis is the main cause of CVD
Amino Acids
Building blocks of proteins.
Essential Amino Acids
.Amino Acids that the body cannot synthesize in the amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs.
Conditionally Essential Amino Acids
An Amino Acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it.
Peptide Bond
A bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain.
Dipeptide
Two Amino Acids bonded together.
Tripeptide
3 amino acids bonded together.
Polupeptide
many amino acids bonded together. more than 10.
Denaturation
the change in a protein's shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, base, acid, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents.
Edema
the swelling of body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial spaces, seen in protein deficiency.
Protein Turnover
The degradation and synthesis of protein.
Amino Acid Pool
The supply of amino acids derived from either food proteins or body proteins that collect in the cells and circulating blood and stand ready to be incorporated in proteins and other compounds or used for energy
Nitrogen Balance
The amount of Nitrogen consumed as compared to the amount of Nitrogen excreted in a given period of time.
Deamination
removal of the amino group from a compound such as an amino acid.
High-Quality Protein
Dietary proteins containing all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human beings require. They may also contain nonessential amino acids.
Complimentary Protein
Two or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other.
Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
A defeciency of Protein, kcals, or both, including Marasmus or Kwashiorkor.
Acute PEM
Protein-energy malnutrition caused by recent severe food restriction; Thinness for height (Wasting)
Chronic PEM
Protein-energy malnutrition caused by long-term food deprivation; Short height for age.
Marasmus
A form of PEM that resutls from a severe deprivation, or impaired absorbtion, of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals.
Kwashiorkor
A form of PEM that results from either inadequate protein intake or, more commonly, from infections.D