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73 Cards in this Set

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Acute Pain
Pain that is sudden inonset usually susides when treated less than 3month
Adjuvant analgesic agent
A drug that is added as a second drug for combined therapy with a primary drug and may have additive analgesic properites
Partial agonist
A substance that binds to a recptor and causes a partial response that is not as strong as that coused by an agonist.
Analgesics
Medications that relieve pain without cuasing loss of consciousness
Antagonist
An agent that binds to a receptor and prevents (blocks) a response
Central Pain
Pain resultin g form any disorder that cddauses central nervous system
Gate Theory
The most common and well described theory of pain transmission and pain relief. It uses a gate model to explain how impulses from damged tissues are sensed in the brain
Neuropathic pain
Pain that results from a disturbance of function or pathologic change in a nerve
Nonopiod analgesics
Analgesics that are not classified a opiods
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
A large chemically diverse group of drugs that are nalgesics and also possess antiinflammatory and antipyretic actifvity but are not steriods
Opioid analgesics
Synthetic narcotic agents that bind to the mu, kappa, and delta receptors to relieve pain but are not themselves derived from the opium plant
Opioid tolerance
A physiologic reult of long-term opioid use in which larger doses of opiods are required to maintain the same level of analgesia
Pain threshold
The level of stimulus that results in the preception of pain
Referred pain
Pain occurring in an area away from the organ of origin. ex. left arm in heart attack
Somatic pain
Pain thatoriginates from skeletal muscles, ligaments, or joints
Vascular Pain
Pain that results from pathology of the vascular or perivascular tissues ex migraine headache
Visceral pain
Pain that originates from organs or smooth muscles
Chronic Pain
Arthritis last more than 3months
Superficial Pain
Skin
Neuropathic pain
Shingles
Opioid
Morphine
Opioid
Codiene
Opioid
Meperidine hydrochloride (demeral)
Opioid
Mathadone hydorchloride (Dolophine)
Opioid Antagonist
Naloxone hydrochloride (Narcan)
Three chemcical clsses of opioids
Morphine
Mepridine
Methodone
Anesthertics
Are agents thaqt depress the CNS which in turn produces depression of consciousness, loss of responsiveness to sensory stimulation or muscle relaxation
Balanced Anesthesia
The practice of using combination of drugs rather than using a single agent to produce anesthesia Common combinations include use of sedative hypnotic and antianxiety agent an analgesic, an antiemetic and anticholinergic
Partial agonist
binds to a receptor and causes only limited actions
Agonist
binds to a receptor and causes a response
Opioids
Indications:
Alleviate moderate to severe pain.
Adjuvant Analgesic Agents
Assist the primary agents in relieveing pain ie; NSAIDS, Antidepressants, anticonvulsants and corticosteroids (cancer pains)
Opioids
Morphine Sulfate
Codeine Sulfate
Demerol
Dolophine
Opoid antagonist
Naloxone hydrochloride (Narcan) Antidote
Naltrexone hydrocholoride
Opoid Antagonist
Side Effects
CNS depression, Cardio, GI, Genitorurinary, Resp. Itchy
Nonopioid Analgesic agents
Acetaminophen, NSAIDS
Antipyretic an analgesic
Nonopioid
S/A effects
rash n/v, nephrotoxicities, large amounts cause hepatic necrosis
Antidote for Acetaminophen
Acetylcysteine
Two categories of anesthetics
inhalded and injectable
Anesthetic drug effect
orderly and sstematic pralysis of the CNS
Anesthetic Contraindications
Drug allergy, pregnancy, narrow angle glaucomea, hypetension from prior use.
parenteral anesthetics
can be administered into the CNS by various spinal injection techniques (lidocaine, mepivacaine, procaine,a nd tetracaine)
Neuromuscular blocking Agents
Prevent nerve transmission in certain muscles, leading to paralysis of the muscle
Central Nervous System Depressants
Sleep: REM 25-35% Most important 5 stages of sleep
Rebound sleep
when REM sleep is decreased strong tendency to make it up Sedative Hypnotics
Barbiturates
Reduce oveall CNS alertness Drug tolerance can occur as well as dependence: Ultra short
Benzodiazepines
Sedative/hypnotic of choice, low doses reduce anxiety can calm and sedate w/o drowsiness
Muscoskeletal Relaxants
2 categories
Centrally and Peripherally acting relaxants
Centrally Acting
Mechanism of Action
Indications
Contraindications
Unknown but act by CNS depression
Acute spasms from muscle trauma and drug allergy and renal impairment
Peripheralor Direct Acting
Mechanism of Action
Indications
Contraindications
acts on muscles min. effect on CNS mild weakness of S.M. and decreases the force of reflex muscle movements & spasticity
Antiepileptic Agents
Drug Classes
Benzodiazepines: Lorazepan
BarbituratesL Phenobrbital
Carbamazepine: Tegretol
Valproic acid: Depakene
Topiramate: Topamax
Hydantoins: Dilantin
Succinimides: Ethosuxmide
Gabapentine: Neurontin
Antiparkinsonian Agents
Parkinson's deisease
A dopamine deficiency occurs in the bal ganglia, slowly progressive degenerative neurologic disorder characterized by resting termor, pill rolling of the fingers shuffling gait muscle rigid and weakness
Treatment of Parkinson
Promote secreetion of dopamine and inhibit cholinergic effects with anitcholinergic drugs
Antiparkinsonian Agents
Anticholinergic
benztropine, biperiden, procyclidine, trihexyphenidyl
reduce rigidity and tremors
Antiparkinsonian Agents
Antihistamines
diphenhydramine, orphenadrine
Antiparkinsonian Agents
Dopamine receptor agonists
bromocriptine, levodopa-carbidopa, pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, selegiline
Antiparkinsonian Agents
Implications
Assist in walking because Dizziness may occur, Force fluids, Avoid foods high in B6 cause reverse of levodopa, MAOI's can cause hypertensive crisis
Antiparkinsonian Agents
COMT inhibitors
In hibit the enzyme COMT which breaks down dopamine molecules
Drugs Classes Used in Anxiety Disorders
Antihistamines and misc. anxiolytic agents Benzodiazepines
Benzodiazepines
S/A Effects
drowsiness, hangover, sedation, lethargy, report: abuse, blodd cyscrasisa, and hepatotoxicity
Drugs Use in Anxiety Disorders
Benzodiazepines
Xanax, librium, Valium, Diazepam, Lorazepam
Drugs Use in Anxiety Disorders
Antihistamines
Hydroxyzine(vistrail, Atarax)
blurred vision, constipation, dryness of mouth, throuat or nose sedation report dizziness, slurred speech
Drugs Use in Anxiety Disorders
Azaspirones:
Buspirone (Buspar)partial serotonis agaonist. non habit or sedating
Antimanic Agents
Lithium Serum level 1.0 to 1.5 mEq/L levels exceeding 2.0 to 2.5 produce moderate to severe toxicity
Drug Therapy for depression
MOAI(Nardil), SSRI (Prozac), Tricyclic (Elavil), Misc (wellbutrin)
Antipsychotic Agents
Phenothiazine
(Chlorpromazine)
Low potency agent, Psychotic disorders and schizophrenia
Antipsychotic Agents
Thioxanthenes (thiothixene)
High potency, blocks receptors for dopamine, acth, hitaine and morepinephrine I: Sch/otr psy disorder
Antipsychotic Agents
Butyropheneones
(Haloperidol)
High potency nerolepitcs and blocks receptors for dopamine acth, histamine, and norepinephrine I: Schiz, acute psy, tourettes
Antipsychotic Agents
Dihydroindolones
(molindone)
blocks dopamine receptors in the brain for psychotic disorders and schiz
Antipsychotic Agents
Atypical antipsychoitcs
(Clozapine)
Bokcs actoin on receptors like serotin, alph adrenergic and histamine for patients with sever schizophrenia risk of fatal agranulocytosis
Amphetamines
produce mood elevation or euphoria increase mental alertness adn capacity for work used to treat ADHD and narcolespy
Anorexiants
suprrss appetit and tused for exogenous obesity
Serotonin agonists
treat migraine headaches by stimulat 5ht1 receptors and constriction of dialted blood vessels in the brain and relas or inflammatory neuropeptides