Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/53

Click to flip

53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
axial
in the trigonal bipyramidal electron-pair geometry, the two positions directly across from each other
bent
the molecular geometry of a triatomic molecule or ion in which the bond angle is less than 180 degrees
bond angle
the angle between two atoms bonded to a central atom
bond axis
an imaginary line connecting the nuclei of two bonded atoms
bond dissocitiation enthalpy
the enthalpy change for breaking a bond in a molecule, with the reactants and products in the gas phase at standard conditions. Also called bond energy
bond length
the distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms
bond order
the number of bonding electron pairs shared by two atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion
bond pair
two electrons, shared by two atoms, that contribute to the bonding attraction between the atoms
bond
an interaction between atoms that holds them together by reducing the potential energy of their electrons
bonding pair
a pair of electrons that is shared between two atoms
chemical bond
an attractive force between two atoms that causes the atoms to be attached together
coordinate covalent bond
a bond in which both electrons in the bond were contributed by the same atom
core electrons
the electrons in an atoms completed set of shells
covalent bond
an interatomic attraction resulting from the sharing of electrons between atoms
covalent compound
a compound formed by atoms that are held together by only covalent bonds
dipole-dipole attraction
the electrostatic force between two molecules that have permanent dipole moments
dipole moment
a measure of the degree of charge separation in a molecule which is the product of the positive charge, Q, in electrostatic units and the distance
double bond
a covalent bond formed by sharing two pairs of electrons, one pair in a sigma bond and the other pair in a pi bond
electron-pair geometry
the geometry determined by all the bond pairs and lone pairs in the valence shell around a central atom
electronegativity
a measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
electroneutrality principle
electrons will be distributed in such a way that the charges on all atoms are as close to zero as possible
equatorial
in the trigonal bi-pyramidal electron-pair geometry, the three positions in a plane midway between the two axial positions
formal charge
the charge on an atom in a molecule or ion, which is determined by comparing the number of valence electrons in the element to the number of electrons from assigning lone pairs solely to the atom and evenly splitting bonding pairs between the atoms forming a bond
free radical
a neutral atom or molecule containing an unpaired electron, which is usually very reactive
intermolecular forces
interactions between molecules, between ions, or between molecules and ions
ionic bond
the electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions
isoelectronic species
molecules or ions that have the same number of valence electrons and similar Lewis structures
lewis electron dot symbol
a notation for the valence electron configuration of an atom
lewis structure
a representation of a covalently bonded species in which a lone pair that belongs olely to one atom is represented by two dots, and a pair of electrons that is shared between two atoms as a bond is represented by a line connecting the two atoms
linear
the molecular geometry of a triatomic molecule or ion with a bond angle of 180 degrees
lone pair
a pair of valence electrons that belongs solely to one atom, and does not contribute to bonding in a covalent molecule
molecular geometry
the arrangement in space of a central atom and the atoms directly attached to it
nonbonding electrons
electrons that are not shared between atoms in a covalent species, and belong solely to one atom
nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally between the two bonded atoms, which has a dipole moment of zero
octahedral
the electron-pair geometry when six groups are connected to a central atom, and the molecular geometry when all six groups in an octahedral electron-paoir geometry are atoms
octet
a stable configuration of eight valence electrons in completed s and p subshells
octet rule
when forming bonds, atoms of main group elements gain, lose, or share electrons to achieve a stable configuration having eight valence electrons
partial charge
the charge on an atom in a molecule that is calculated by assuming sharing of the bonding electrons proportional to the electronegativity of the atom
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which there is unequal sharing of the bonding electron pair
resonance hybrid
the actual structure of a molecule or ion that exhibits resonance
resonance structures
the possible structure of a molecule for which more than one lewis structure can be written, differing by the number of bond pairs between a given pair of atoms
seesaw
the molecular geometry when four atoms and one lone pair are connected to a central atom with the trigonal bipyramidal electron-pair geometry
single bond
a covalent bond formed by sharing one pair of electrons in a sigma bond
square planar
the molecular geometry when four atoms and two lone pairs are connected to a central atom with the octahedral electron-pair geometry
square pyramidal
the molecular geometry when five atoms and one lone pair are connected to a central atom with the octahedral electron-pair geometry
t-shaped
the molecular geometry when three atoms and two lone pairs are connected to a central atom with the trigonal bipyramidal electron-pair geometry
tetrahedral
the electron-pair geometry having four groups connected to a central atom, and the molecular geometry when all four groups in a tetrahedral electron-pair geometry are atoms
trigonal bipyramidal
the electron pair geometry when five groups are connected to a central atom, and the molecular geometry when all five groups in a trigonal bipyramidal electron pair geometry are atoms
trigonal planar
the electron-pair geometry having three groups connected to a central atom, and the molecular geometry that results when all there groups connected to a central atom with the trigonal planar electron pair geometry are atoms
trigonal pyramidal
the molecular geometry when three atoms and one lone pair are connected to a central atom with the tetrahedral electron pair geometry
triple bond
a covalent bond formed by sharing three pairs of electrons, one pair in a sigma bond and the other two in pi bonds
valence electrons
the outermost and most reactive electrons of an atom
valence shell electron pair repulsion model (VSEPR)
a model for predicting the shapes of molecules in which structural electron pairs are arranged around each atom to minimize electron-electron repulsions by maximizing the distance between them