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8 Cards in this Set

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the operation of summation; the sum of all scores:

N
∑ X,i
i=1

means "sum of the X variable from i = 1 to N"
NOMINAL SCALE
lowest level of measurement, most often used with QUALITATIVE variables; the categories comprise the "units" of the scale

(e.g., brands of shoes, kinds of fruit, types of music)
ORDINAL SCALE
a higher level of measurement than nominal: rand ordering the objects being measured according to whether they possess more, less, or the same amount of the variable being measured-- this says nothing of the magnitude of difference between the rankings

(e.g., a 400-meter dash has a 1st-place, 2nd-place, and 3rd-place winner: the difference between 1st and 2nd may be small while the difference between 2nd and 3rd may be quite large)
INTERVAL SCALE
measurement scale possessing the properties of magnitude *AND* equal interval between adjacent units but lacks an absolute zero point-- that is, the additional heat will cause the same change in temp no matter where on the scale the change occurs

(e.g., the Celsius scale of temperature; the difference in temperature between 51 and 52 is the same as the difference between 2 and 3 or 106 and 107)
RATIO SCALE
all of the properties of the interval scale, but with an absolute zero point

(e.g., a reading of 0 on the Celsius scale of temperature corresponds to the temperature at which water freezes; a reading of 0 on the Kelvin scale corresponds to a complete absence of heat)
CONTINUOUS VARIABLE
a variable that theoretically can have an infinite number of values between adjacent units on the scale

(e.g., weight, height, and time: you can be 190.22222222234 pounds)
DISCRETE VARIABLE
variable in which there are no possible values between adjacent units on the scale

(e.g., number of children in a family, number of students in your class: there are 5 students in my cohort)
REAL LIMITS OF A CONTINUOUS VARIABLE
those values that are above and below the recorded value by one-half of the smallest measuring unit of the scale

(e.g., to record a [rounded] weight of 180 pounds, you must be over 179.5 but under 180.5)