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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mass is neither created nor destroyed
law of conservation of mass
a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass
law of definite proportion
a law stating that when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combines with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers
law of multiple proportions
the weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring element
atomic weights
- the rays emanating from the negative electrode (cathode) in a partially evacuated tube; a stream of electrons
cathode ray
a negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom
the spontaneous decomposition of a nucleus to form a different nucleus
an atom having a dense center of positive charge (the nucleus) with electrons moving around the outside
nuclear atom
the small, dense center of positive charge in an atom
positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus
a particle in the atomic nucleus with a mass virtually equal to the proton but with no charge
atoms of the same element (same number of protons) with different number of neutrons. They have identical atomic numbers, but different mass numbers
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an atom
mass number
the force or, more accurately, the energy, that holds two atoms together in a compound
chemical bond
type of bond in which electron are shared by atoms
covalent bond
a bonded collection of two or more atoms of the same or different elements
the representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the elements are used to indicate the types of atoms present and subscripts are used to show the relative numbers of atoms
chemical formula
the representation of a molecule in which the relative positions of the atoms are shown and the bonds are indicated by lines
structural formula
a model of a molecule showing the relative sizes of the atoms and their relative orientations
space-filling model
a molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but show bond relationships clearly
ball-and-stick model
an atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge
positive ion
negative ion
the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic bond
a solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to give a solution containing the separated ions which are mobile and thus free to condust electrical current
ionic solid (salt)-
an ion containing a number of ions
polyatomic ion
a chart showing all the elements arranged in columns with similar chemical properties
periodic table
an element that gives up electrons relatively easily and is lustrous, malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity
an element not exhibiting metallic characteristics. Chemically, a typical nonmetal accepts electrons from a metal
a vertical column of elements having the same valence electron configuration and showing similar properties
group (family)
a group 1A metal
alkali metals
a group 2A metal
alkaline earth metals
a group 7A element
a group 8A element
noble gases
a two-element compound
binary compounds
a substance that produces hydrogen ions in a solution; a proton donor