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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List 4 local anesthetics
Define local anesthesia
Use of chemical agent on sensory neurons to produce a disruption of nerve impulse transmission, leading to a temporary loss of sensation
Toxicity of Local Anesthetics (5)
If injected into nerve, loss of function

Irritation at injection site

Paresthesia - tingling, pain, irritation during recovery

Allergic reactions

Systemic toxicity - coma (injected IV, or overdosed)
Onset and duration of Lidocaine
Immediate onset

Duration 1-2 hours
Onset and duration of Bupivacaine
Onset 20 minutes

Duration 4-6 hours
Onset and duration of Procaine
Immediate onset

Duration 1 hour
Onset and duration of Tetracaine
Onset 5-10 min

Duration 2 hours
Define sympathetic blockade
Loss of function of the neurons in the autonomic nervous system
Name routes in which local anesthetic can be given
topical application
infiltration (injection)
nerve plexus
epidural space
Advantages of local anesthetic (4)
no systemic effects
short recovery time
useful in dentistries
do not penetrate placenta
Disadvantages of local anesthetic
1) patient not unconscious
2) training required
3) ineffective if area is inflamed
4) toxicity
Local anesthetics' mechanism of action
Stabilize cell membrane.

Blocks membrane channnels through which sodium flows into neuron.

Nerve depolarization is stopped.

Sensory and motor neurons stop functioning
Ethyl chloride
Topical anesthetic

Sprayed on intact skin. Provides partial, short term analgesia by cooling skin.

Used for biopsies & superficial procedures.
EMLA cream
Mixture of lidocaine & priocaine

Desentsitizes intact skin for minor superficial procedures such as catheterization.

Duration 1-2 hours
Splash block
Use of sprays or soaked gauze sponges for local anesthesia.
Two reasons why epinephrine is added to lidocaine
1) Epinephrine prolongs effect of lidocaine by ~ 50%
It causes vasoconstriction, decreasing rate of drug absorption.
2) Reduces toxicity by reducing concentration of drug entering circulation at any given time.
Epinephrine should not be used with lidocaine on... (3)
1) incision site - impairs tissue perfusion & healing
2) ears, tail, digits - circulation to these areas may be compromised
3) animals with cardiac disease - incrases risk of ventricular arrhythmias
Regional anesthesia
Local anesthetic is injected into a major nerve plexus or in proximity to spinal cord. Results in blockage of a large area.
Epidural anesthesia is best used on (3)
1) Large animals
2) Debilitated small-animal patients in which general anesthesia is problematic
3) Patients requiring profound pain control
Where is anesthetic deposited for epidural anesthesia
Epidural space - between dura mater and the vertebrae.

Between L7 and sacrum
IV regional anesthesia (Bier Block)
Common in large animals - injected into distal segment of superficial vein