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368 Cards in this Set

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How do normal flora help resist colonization? (4)
occupation of adhesion sites,
alteration of physiochemical environment,
production of antagonistic substances,
utilization of available nutrients
What sites in the body have normal flora? (5)
upper respiratory tract,
GI tract,
urethra,
genital tract,
skin
What sites in the body are normally sterile? (6)
lower respiratory tract,
blood and bone marrow,
CSF,
serous fluids,
tissues,
urinary bladder
What are some components of bacterial cell walls?
PDG layer,
teichoic and lipoteichoic acids,
complex ploysaccharides,
LPS (if Gram negative)
What are some external features of bacteria?
capsule/slime layer,
flagella,
fimbriae/pili
Do mycobacteria have a cell wall?
Yes, the PDG layer is covered by a mycolic acid waxy coat.
Do mycoplasmas have a cell wall?
NO
What is an antimicrobial?
Any substance of natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic origin that kills or inhibits growth of microbes and can be safely given to a patient.
What is an antibiotic?
Substances produced by MICROBES that at a low concentration can kill or inhibit the growth of other microbes.
Define prophylaxis and metaphylaxis.
Pro: prevention of disease by giving antibiotics before infection.
Meta: the timely mass medication of a group of animals to eliminate or minimize an expected outbreak.
Why use subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics?
To promote an animal's growth, enhance physiological performance in food animals.
What is selective toxicity?
Maximum negative affect on the microbe with minimum negative affect on the host.
What classes of drugs inhibit cell wall synthesis? (3)
beta-lactams,
vancomycin,
bacitracin
What class of drugs inhibits bacterial membrane intergrity?
polymixins
What classes of drugs disrupt Folic Acid metabolism? (2)
sulfonamides,
trimethiprim
What class of drugs inhibit DNA-dependent RNA-polymerase?
rifampin
What class of drugs inhibit DNA gyrase?
quinolones
What classes of drugs inhibit protein synthesis? (5)
chloramphenicols,
lincosamides,
aminoglycosides,
macrolides,
tetracyclines
What drug inhibits nucleic acid synthesis?
metronidazole
What is the MIC?
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, the lowest concentration of a drug that visibly inhibits growth after 18-24 hours.
What is the MBC?
Minimum Bactericidal Concentration, the lowest concentration of a drug that kills a bacterium.
How does the zone of inhibition correlate with the MIC?
inversely
What does selection pressure do?
When the susceptible organisms are kille doff, the resistant ones are left to repopulate.
What is microbiological resistance?
An increase in the usual MIC range to levels that are too high to be reached with standard therapeutic doses.
What is clinical resistance?
An unexpected lack of response to treatment in a clinical case.
What is intrinsic resistance?
An inherent characteristic of the bacterium, usually broad-spectrum.
What is acquired resistance?
One that can occur through spontaneous chromosomal mutation or through the transfer of plasmids.
What is transformation?
The uptake of naked DNA from the environment.
What is transduction?
Bacteriophage-facilitated transfer of DNA between bacteria.
What is conjugation?
Transfer of plasmids from one bacteria to another via the sex-pilus; occurs more frequently in Gram negative bacteria.
What is transposition?
The transfer of "jumping genes" (transposons) from plasmid to plasmid, plasmid to chromosome, or chromosome to plasmid.
What are the mechanisms of resistance? (4)
decreased intracellular drug concentrations (through decreased uptake or increased efflux),
drug inactivation,
target modification,
target bypass
What mechanism of resistance is common for tetracyclines?
decreased intracellular drug concentration (via >20 varieties of efflux pumps)
What mechanism of resistance is common for beta-lactams?
drug inactivation (single base change in beta-lactamase)
What mechanism of resistance is common for aminoglycosides?
drug inactivation (>30 different plasmid genes)
What mechanism of resistance is common for chloramphenicol?
drug inactivation (>12 chloramphenicol acetyltransferases)
What mechanism of resistance is can occur for quinolones?
target modification (multi-step mutation of DNA gyrase genes)
What mechanism of resistance is extremely common for rifampin?
target modification (single base change in target gene)
Why has resistance emerged?
it is an inevitable and irreversible outcome of evolution,
"survival of the fittest",
acquisition includes conjugation,
overuse of antibiotics (selective pressure)
How do we prevent resistance?
vaccines (fewer illnesses),
understanding origins of resistance,
imporved surveillance of emerging diseases,
appropriate pharmacological principles
What classes of drugs are bactericidal?
beta-lactams,
vancomycin,
potentiated sulfonamides,
quinolones,
aminoglycosides,
large doses of macrolides,
large doses of lincosamides,
metronidazole
What classes of drugs are bacteriostatic?
bacitracin,
polymyxins,
sulfonamides,
rifampin,
tetracyclines,
chloramphenicol,
macrolides,
lincosamides,
What bacteria are beta-lactams effective against?
early penicillins: Gram positive aerobes, most anaerobes, limited Gram negative
later penicillins: many Gram negative
1st generation cephalosporins: Gram positive
2nd generation cephalosporins: fewer Gram positive, more Gram negative
3rd generation cephalosporins: more Gram negative, limited Gram positive
carbapanems: Gram positive, aanaerobes, Gram negative, Salmonella
What bacteria is vancomycin effective against?
Gram positive cocci
Can you use vancomycin in food animals?
NO
What kinds of bacteria does bacitracin inhibit?
Gram positive, spirochetes, a few Gram negative
What kinds of bacteria does polymyxin inhibit?
Gram negative (E. coli, Salmonella, Pseudomonas)
What kinds of bacteria do sulfonamides inhibit/kill?
Gram positive, some anaerobes, Gram negative, protozoans
What kinds of bacteria does rifampin inhibit?
Gram positve, mycobacteria
What kinds of bacteria do quinolones inhibit?
Gram positive, many Gram negative, obligate IC bacteria
What kinds of bacteria do aminoglycosides kill?
Gram positive, spirochetes, mycoplasmas, serious Gram negative infections
Why can't you use aminoglycosides on anaerobes?
needs oxygen to work
What kinds of bacteria do tetracyclines inhibit?
Gram positive, Gram negative aerobes, some anaerobes, mycoplasmas, spirochetes, rickettsials, chlamydia, and some protozoans
What kinds of bacteria does chloramphenicol inhibit?
Gram positive and Gram negative aerobes, some anaerobes, spirochetes, rickettsials, chlamydia
Why can't you give chloramphenicol to food animals?
it can cause aplastic anemia in humans and we don't know if it will be present in the food
What kinds of bacteria do macrolides inhibt/kill?
Gram positive, Gram negative, mycoplasmas, chlamydia, some anaerobes
What kinds of bacteria do lincosamides inhibit/kill?
Gram positive aerobes, anaerobes, mycoplasmas
What kinds of bacteria does metronidazole kill?
anaerobes
Are sulfonamides used to kill Clostridium, Pseudomonas, rickettsials, spirochetes?
NO
What is the mechanism of resistance for aminoglycosides?
drug inactivation
What is the mechanism of resistance for chloramphenicol?
drug inactivation
What are some mechanisms of resistance for macrolides?
impenetrable cell wall (too big), efflux pump
What is the mechanism of resistance for lincosamides?
target modification
What drugs face resistance from decreased intracellular concentraions? (2 or 5)
tetracyclines, macrolides, some beta-lactams, some sulfonamides, some quinolones
What drugs face resistance from drug inactivation? (3)
beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol
What drugs face resistance from target modification? (4 or 6)
sulfonamides, rifampin, quinolones, lincosamides, some beta-lactams, some tetracyclines
What drugs face resistance from target bypass? (1)
sulfonamides
How do we potentiate beta-lactams?
Add a drug that irreversibly binds to beta-lactamase (ex: clavulonic acid)
Are carbapanems resistant to beta-lactamses?
YES
Is resistance common in vancomycin?
NO
Where does Staph normally live?
upper respiratory tract and skin
Can Staph persist in the environment?
YES
What organisms tend to cause endogenous infections? (5)
Staph, most Strep, Corynebacterium renale group, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Actinomycetes
What is the disease pattern of most Staph?
pyogenic (abscesses in any organ/any tissue)
What organisms can cause mastitis?
Staph aureus, Strep agalactiae (chronic/contagious), Strep dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae (acute/environmental), Strep dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis, Strep equi ssp. zooepidemicus, Strep uberis (environmental), Arcanobacterium pyogenes, sometimes Nocardia asteroides
What organisms can cause arthritis?
Staph aureus, Strep suis, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
What are the virulence factors of Staph?
adhesins that bind collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen, elastin;
anti-phagocytic capsule;
prevention of opsonization;
exotoxins that cause cell death, an increase in inflammatory cytokines, spreading factors;
possibly coagulase;
may be able to cause uroliths by increasing pH
How does one diagnose a Staph infection?
collect pus,
watch for hemolysis type,
coagulase test
What organism can cause abscesses, mastitis, dermatitis, arthiritis, and osteomyelitis?
Staph aureus
What organism causes "Bumblefoot/botryomycosis" of birds and rats?
Staph aureus
What organism causes "Scirrhous cord" in post-castration horses?
Staph aureus
What is the most common pyogenic agent of dogs?
Staph pseudintermedius
What organism causes pyoderma, otitis extrena, respiratory tract infections, and infections of bones, joints, and wounds in dogs?
Staph pseudintermedius
What diseases can Staph aureus cause?
abscesses, mastitis, dermatitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, Bumblefoot/botryomycosis, scirrhous cord
What diseases can Staph pseudintermedius cause?
pyoderma, otitis externa, respiratory tract infections, infections of bones, joints and wounds
What organism causes "Greasy pig disease"/exudative epidermitits in piglets?
Staph hyicus
What disease does Staph hyicus cause?
"Greasy pig disease"/exudative epidermitis in piglets
Is "Greasy pig disease" contagious?
YES
How do we prevent Staph infections?
Vaccination goals: prevent adhesion, promote opsonization, neutralize toxins;
capsule antibodies do offer protection, alpha-toxoid reduces clinical severity but does not prevent infection/abscess formation, anti-protein A antibodies not protective
Where does Strep usually live?
Mucous membranes
Can Strep survive in the environment?
Yes, but not as well as Staph
Are most Strep infections endogenous?
Yes
What diseases can Strep cause?
upper respiratory infections, lymphadenitis, mastitis, metritis, polyarthritis, meningitis, neonatal septicemia, secondary pneumonia
What organism species can cause upper respiratory infections, lymphadenitis, mastitis, metritis, polyarthritis, meningitis, neonatal septicemia, secondary pneumonia?
Strep
Can Strep cause pyogenic infections?
Yes
What are the virulence factors of Strep?
adherence to epithelial cells and fibrinogen;
coats itself with fibrinogen;
hyaluronic acid capsule does not bind with Complement;
exotoxins are cytolytic, fibrinolytic, and act as a spreading factor;
stimulates T cells to make inflammatory cytokines (-> fever)
How does Strep cause disease?
the cell wall activates the Alternative Pathway of Complement, which evokes vasodilation, exudate of plasma, and the arrival of PMNs
How do we diagnose Strep?
collect pus; check Lancefield groupings and type of hemolysis (beta = pathogenic)
Do dogs give kids Strep throat?
NO
What organism causes chronic bovine mastitis/contagious mastitis?
Strep agalactiae
What disease does Strep agalactiae cause?
chronic bovine mastitis/contagious mastitis
What organism causes acute bovine mastitis/environmental mastitis?
Strep dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae
What disease does Strep dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae cause?
acute bovine mastitis/environmental mastitis
Where does Strep dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae normally live?
cattle mouth and vagina
What organism causes equine abscesses, endometritis, and mastitis?
Strep dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis
What disease does Strep dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis cause?
equine abscesses, endometritis, mastitis
Where does Strep dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis normally live?
horse skin and vagina
What organism causes "Strangles"?
Strep equi ssp.equi
What is "Strangles"?
submandibular and retropharyngeal lymphadenitis, rhinopharyngitis, guttural pouch empyema
What disease does Strep equi ssp. equi cause?
"Strangles"
Is "Strangles" contagious?
yes, by direct and indirect transmission
How long do horses with "Strangles" shed for?
weeks, and can be chronic carriers
Is there a vaccine for "Strangles"?
yes, live attenuated nonencapsulated strain
What are the sequelae of "Strangles"?
bastard strangles: metastatic abscesses 3 weeks after infection;
purpura hemorrhagica: necrotizing vasculitis 3 weeks after infection;
myopathies: muscle infarcts and rhabdomyolysis
What organism causes mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, navel ill, and joint ill of many species?
Strep equi ssp. zooepidemicus
What diseases can Strep equi ssp. zooepidemicus cause?
mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, navel ill, and joint ill of many species
What is the most common pyogenic agent of horses?
Strep equi ssp. zooepidemicus
Where does Strep equi ssp zooepidemicus normally live?
horse mucous membranes
Can Strep equi ssp. zooepidemicus an endogenous infection?
Yes
What organism causes pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis, and meningitis in pigs?
Strep suis
What diseases does Strep suis cause?
pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis, and meningitis in pigs
Where does Strep suis normally live?
pig tonsils and nasal cavity
What ssp. of Strep causes endocarditis and 10-15% of canine urinary tract infections?
Enterococcus
What diseases does Enterococcus cause?
endocarditis and 10-15% of canine urinary tract infections
Where does Enterococcus usually live?
human and animal GI tracts
Are Enterococcal infections usually endogenous?
Yes
What kind of media does Enterococcus tolerate?
MacConkey agar (salty)
What diseases does Strep porcinus cause?
cervical lymphadenitis/jowl abscesses in pigs
What organism causes cervical lymphadenitis/jowl abscesses in pigs?
Strep porcinus
Where does Strep porcinus usually live?
pig mucous membranes
What diseases does Strep canis cause?
neonatal septicemia, cervical lymphadenitis, genital/skin/wound infections of dogs, rarely canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis
What organism causes neonatal septicemia, cervical lymphadenitis, genital/skin/wound infections of dogs, rarely canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis?
Strep canis
Where does Strep canis normally live?
dog and carnivore vaginal and anal mucosa
What diseases does Strep uberis cause?
mastitis without systemic signs/environmental mastitis in cattle
What organism causes mastitis without systemic signs/environmental mastitis in cattle?
Strep uberis
Where does Strep uberis normally live?
cattle skin, vagina, and tonsils
What diseases does Strep pneumoniae cause?
humans & primates: pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis;
guinea pigs & rats: pneumonia;
horses: inflammatory lower airway disease in 2-3 year olds in the UK
What organism causes pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis in humans and primates?
Strep pneumoniae
What organism causes pneumonia in guinea pigs and rats?
Strep pneumoniae
What organism causes inflammatory lower airway disease in 2-3 year old horses in the UK?
Strep pneumoniae
Do we have a vaccine for any Strep?
No
Is Listeria monocytogenes zoonotic?
YES
What morphologic shape is Listeria monocytogenes?
motile rods
Where is Listeria monocytogenes normally found?
worldwide, in the GI tract of many spp.
What is unique about Listeria monocytogenes temperature preference?
thrives in colder temperatures
What kinds of substances can Listeria monocytogenes survive in?
dairy products, plant products, meat and soil
How is Listeria monocytogenes acquired?
ingestion
What are the clinical forms of listeriosis?
neural, visceral, abortive, and rarely conjunctivitis
What are the virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes?
adhesion and entry into cells,
survive and replicate as facultative IC microbe,
escape from phagosome,
intracellular movement,
cell to cell spread
What organisms can survive as IC microbes?
Listeria monocytogenes,
Corynebacterium,
Rhodococcus equi,
Mycobacterium,
Nocardia,
Bacillus anthracis
What is the pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes?
direct epithelial invasion,
phagocytic cells carry microbe to target cells,
or damaged mucosa in mouth gives microbe path to trigeminal axon and brainstem
How do we diagnose Listeria monocytogenes?
sample feces, milk, visceral organs, brainstem, or placenta;
cold enrichment enhances isolation from brain;
small smooth flat colonies;
motile
What diseases does the visceral form of listeriosis cause?
focal necrosis of liver or spleen of monogastric spp. (including birds), may also have hemmorhagic gastroenteritis
What organism causes focal necrosis of liver and spleen of monogastric spp. (including birds), and may also cause hemmorhagic gastroenteritis?
Listeria monocytogenes (visceral form)
What diseases does the neural form of listeriosis cause?
"circling disease", unilateral damage to the pons or medulla, ear droop, microabscesses around vessels, may also cause meningitis
What organism causes "circling disease", unilateral damage to the pons or medulla, ear droop, microabscesses around vessels, and possibly meningitis?
Listeria monocytogenes (neural form)
What group of animals most often gets the neural form of listeriosis?
ruminants
What form of listreriosis do ruminants tend to get most often?
Neural form
What animals often get the abortive form of listeriosis?
cattle and sheep
What animals rarely get the abortive form of listeriosis?
llamas, horses, and humans
When does the abortive form of listeriosis usually cause abortion?
late-term
How do we control the spread of listeriosis?
isolate aborting females,
wear gloves and mask if handling aborted material and milk,
pasteurization,
examine animal feed,
presume new animals may be carriers,
clean and disinfect
How can humans get listeriosis?
eat contaminated cole-slaw, soft cheeses, milk, poultry, processed meats when pregnant or immune-compromised
How do we source an outbreak of listeriosis?
serotyping,
phagetyping,
multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis,
genotyping
How does listeriosis manifest in humans?
cutaneous papules
What morphological form is Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?
"smooth" rods (acute cases) or "rough" rods/filamentous (chronic cases)
Is Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae zoonotic?
YES
Where does Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae live?
widespread in the environment,
primary reservoir is pig tonsils, feces, and oronasal secretions
What is unique about the temperature preference of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?
survives in colder temperatures
Can Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae survive drying and high-salt environments?
YES
How is Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae acquired?
ingestion of contaminated materials or by wound contamination
What species does Erysipelothrix infect?
many, especially swine
What forms does Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae exist in?
urticarial form and chronic form
What diseases does Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae cause?
"diamond skin disease" of swine and marine mammals,
acute septicemia, vegetative endocarditis, and polyarthritis in swine and birds
What organism causes "diamond skin disease" of swine and marine mammals?
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
What are the virulence factors of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?
neuraminidase for attachment and vascualr damage and thrombus formation,
antiphagocytic capsule
What is the pathogenesis of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?
ingestion, invasion, bacteremia, localization in various tissues, then can cause vegetative endocarditis or arthritis in chronic form
Can "diamond skin disease" occur with or after septicemia?
yes, both
Can Erysipeloid endocarditis be asysmptomatic?
yes
Can Erysipleoid endocarditis follow congestive heart failure?
yes
Can Erysipeloid endocarditis cause sudden death?
yes
What kind of birds can get Erysipeloid infections?
turkey, geese, and others
What kind of disease does Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae cause in birds?
acute septicemia, vegetative endocarditis, and arthritis
What organism can cause acute septicemia, vegetative endocarditis, and arthritis in birds?
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
What other species can Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infect?
sheep and dogs
What disease does Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae cause in sheep?
polyarthritis
What disease does Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae cause in dogs?
vegetative endocarditis and becteremia
What organism can cause polyarthritis in sheep?
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
What organism can cause vegetative endocarditis and bacteremia in dogs?
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Do we have a vaccine against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?
yes
What do you call human Erysipelothrix infection?
Erysipeloid (localized cellulitis)
What morphological shape is Corynebacterium?
club and filamentous rods
Where does Corynebacterium normally live?
skin, mucous membranes, and sheep GI tract
Can Corynebacterium survive in soil?
YES
How is Corynebacterium acquired?
through a break in skin or mucous membranes, possibly with insect help
What are the two biotypes of Corynebacterium?
small ruminant and equine
What disease does the small ruminant biotype of Corynebacterium cause?
lymph node abscesses with onion-like layers
What disease does the equine biotype of Corynebacterium cause?
"pigeon fever", deep abscesses in pectoral or inguinal region
What are the virulence factors of Corynebacterium?
facultative IC microbe of mac's,
some mycolic acids,
may inactivate Complement and decrease opsonization,
exotoxin lyses RBCs, WBCs, and endothelial cells to increase vascular permeability
What is the pathogenesis of Corynebacterium?
break in skin, into mac's, IC survival, exotoxin, cell necrosis, abscess formation, inflammatory cell accumulation, more cell necrosis, more abscess formation, etc.
What organism causes "Pigeon fever"?
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
How do we diagnose Corynebacterium infection?
collect pus,
slow growing small white dry colony,
narrow zone of hemolysis
What organism is Corynebacterium often misidentified as?
Staph
What organism causes multiple chronic abscesses and caseous lymphadenitis of sheep and goats?
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
What organism causes "thin ewe syndrome"?
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
What disease does Corynebcaterium cause in sheep and goats?
"thin ewe syndrome", caseous lymphadenitis, multiple chronic abscesses
What happens if an animal has "'thin ewe syndrome"?
debilitation, weight loss, poor production, economic loss
How do we control Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in sheep and goats?
CULL the infected animal because antimicrobial treament is ineffective
Is there a bacterin toxoid for Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in sheep and gotas?
yes, but it only prevents dissemination, not infection
What disease does Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis cause in horses?
"Pigeon fever"
What is "pigeon fever"?
deep pectoral or inguinal abscesses
Is there a seasonal occurence with "pigeon fever"?
yes, late summer-early fall after a wet winter
What other diseases can Corynebacterium cause in horses?
facial cellulitis and panniculitis, folliculitis, and <10% go to internal abscesses, in the rest of the world ulcerative lymphadenitis
How is "pigeon fever" kept in a place?
wet and dirty conditions
What other disease could facial cellulitis be confused with?
Strangles
How do we treat "pigeon fever"?
abscess maturation,
lance, drain, and lavage abscess,
may not want to do antimicrobials (thick capsule, IC microbe, internal abscesses, systemic illness)
How do we prevent Corynebacterium infection?
small ruminant vaccine has unknown safety and efficacy,
isolation,
keep purulent material off ground
What organisms are in the Corynebacterium renale group?
C. renale, C. pilosum, C. cystitidis
Where is the Corynebacterium renale group found?
lower urogenital tract of cattle and small ruminants
How is the Corynebacterium renale group transmitted?
direct contact, indirect urine splashing, many cases endogenous
What are the virulence factors of the Corynebacterium renale group?
use fimbriae to attach to uroepithelium,
urease exotoxin
What kind of diet perdisposes an animal to infection by the Corynebacterium renale group?
high protein
What diseases can the Corynebacterium renale group cause?
chronic ascending pyonecrotic urinary tract infection (cystitis to pyelonephritis) of cows,
ulcerative balanoposthitis (pizzle rot) of castrated sheep and goats
What organism causes chronic ascending pyonecrotic urinary tract ibfection (cytsitis to pyelonephritis) of cows?
Corynebacterium renale group
What organism causes ulcerative balanoposthitis (pizzle rot) of castrated sheep and goats
Corynebacterium renale group
Is there a vaccine for the Corynebacterium group?
no
What morphologic shape is Rhodococcus equi?
coccobacillus
Where does Rhodococcus equi live?
in soil and manure on most horse farms, in GI tract of <3 month old foals
How is Rhodococcus equi acquired?
inhalation or ingestion of contaminated dust by 1-6 month old foals
What are the virulence factors of Rhodococcus equi?
antiphagocytic capsule,
facultative IC microbe of mac's,
7 virulence associated proteins (vaps)
What diseases does Rhodococcus equi cause?
chronic pyogranulomatous inflammation (abscesses, granulomas, caseopurulent),
suppurative bronchopneumonia with lung and LN abscesses in foals,
occasional localization in joints, skin, spleen, ulcerative enteritis with abscesses mesenteric LNs
What organism causes chronic pyogranumlomatous infection?
Rhodococcus equi
What organism causes suppurative bronchopneumonia with lung and LN abscesses in foals?
Rhodococcus equi
What organism can cause occasional localization in joints, skin, spleen, and ulcerative enteritis with abscesses mesenteric LNs?
Rhodococcus equis
How do we diagnose Rhodococcus equi?
transtracheal wash,
mucoid-salmon pink colonies,
CAMP(+),
partially acid-fast
Does Rhodococcus equi cause disease in any other spp.?
rarely causes abscesses, cervical lymphadenitis, penumonia in immuno-compromised humans
Why do foals get Rhodococcus equi?
decreased maternal antibodies and immature immune system (with very little INF-gamma production and cell-mediated immunity) makes them susceptible
How do we prevent/control Rhodococcus equi?
decrease the number of mares and foals on the premises,
remove/compost manure,
reduce environmental dust
What morphological shape does Mycobacterium take?
acid-fast rods
Does Mycobacterium grow as fast as other bacteria?
no
What is the reservoir for Mycobacterium infection?
infected animals that shed both vertically and horizontally
Where do atypical Mycobacterium live?
soil and water
What diseases do Mycobacterium cause?
Tuberculosis in domestic spp. and humans,
Johne's disease in ruminants,
leprosy in cats and humans
What is Tuberculosis?
infectious granulomatous disease causing tubercles
What are the virulence factors of Mycobacterium?
facultative IC microbe in mac's,
immunosuppressive (T cells, PMNs)
What is the pathogenesis of Tuberculosis?
inhalation, escape mac's phagolysosome, goes to LNs, inflammation and CMI reactions cause granuloma, lesion develops central caseous necrosis, calcification/liquefaction, hematogenous dissemination may enlarge/coalesce/occupy some parts of organs
What is the primary host species of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
humans
How is Mycobacterium tuberculosis spread?
shed in respiratory discharge (aerosolize/fomites)
What disease does Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause?
consumption, progressive lesions in lungs and LNs of primates, dogs, elephants, canaries, psittacines,
limited disease in cattle and swine,
no disease in cats and poultry
What organism causes comsumption?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
What diseases does Mycobacterium bovis cause?
"pearl disease",
progressive tubercles of lung, liver and LNs in cattle, swine, sheep, goats, primates, deer, elk, bison, swine, llamas, dogs, cats, badgers, possum, elephants, rhinoceri, camels, giraffes,
birds are resistant
What organism causes progressive tubercles in lung, liver and LNs of just about every animal except birds?
Mycobacterium bovis
Is Mycobacterium bovis zoonotic?
YES
How is Mycobacterium bovis shed?
respiratory discharges, feces, milk, urine, and semen
Is there a national eradication program in the US for Mycobacterium bovis?
YES
How do we prevent the spread of Mycobacterium bovis?
CULL the infected/exposed animal
What states still have Mycobacterium bovis?
NM, CA, MI, MN
What diseases are caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium?
lesions in intestines, liver, spleen, and bone marrow (not often lungs) of non-psittacine birds
What organism causes lesions of intestines, liver, and bone marrow (but not the lungs) of non-psittacine birds?
Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium
How is Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium spread?
through feces, lives in environment
How do we diagnose Mycobacterium?
transtracheal wash, LN aspirate, tissues with lesions
impression smear, sample concentration, selective decontamination, special media, SLOW growth
How do we do Mycobacterium bovis surveillance?
intradermal skin test (PPD/tuberculin) to detect delayed-type hypersensitivity
What disease is caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis?
Johne's, paratuberculosis, chronic progressive granulomatous enteritis
What organism causes Johne's and paratuberculosis?
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis
What animals can get Johne's?
cattle, sheep, goats, and other ruminants
How is Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis shed?
in feces
Does Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis incubate for a long time?
yes, 2-5 years
Is there any treatment for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis?
no
What is the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis?
uptake by Peyer's patches, into mac's, inflammation and CMI, diffuse granulomatous inflammation within lamina propria and submucosa, chronic protein-losing enteropathy, "corrugated" mucosa, bottle jaw from hypoproteinemia
How doe we diagnose Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis?
microbes in feces or ileum,
antibody detection late in disease
How do we prevent/control for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis?
voluntary certification program,
prevent calf infection,
cull and disinfect
What disease does Mycobacterium lepraemurium cause?
leprosy in cats (we think)
What organism do we think causes leprosy in young cats?
Mycobacterium lepraemurium
What do leprous lesions look like?
soft fleshy nodules on face, forelimbs, and trunk subcutis and skin with enlarged regional LNs
How do we think cats get Mycobacterium lepraemurium?
from bites or contact with rats
How do we find Mycobacterium lepraemurium in the nodules?
acid-fast bacilli in impression smears
What is the morphology of Actinomycetes?
pleomorphic capnophilic rods
What disease does Arcanobacterium pyogenes cause?
suppurative processes of nearly any site
What organism causes suppurative processes of nearly any site?
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
What are the virulence factors of Arcanobacterium pyogenes?
neuraminidase for attachment and binding to collagen, fibronectin, and fibrinogen,
cytolytic exotoxin
Where does Arcanobacterium pyogenes normally live?
skin and mucous membranes of cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs
What is the most common pyogenic agent of cattle?
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
How do we treat Arcanobacterium pyogenes?
lance, drain, lavage
What specific diseases can Arcanobacterium pyogenes cause?
liver abscesses, lymphadenitis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, metritis, mastitis, suppurative pneumonia
What organism can cause liver abscesses, lymphadentitis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, metritis, mastitis, and suppurative pneumonia?
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Is Actinobaculum suis anaerobic or aerobic?
anaerobic
Where does Actinobaculum suis usually live?
preputial mucosa of swine
What disease can Actinobaculum suis cause?
cystitis and pyelonephritis of sows
What organism causes cystitis and pyelonephritis of sows?
Actinobaculum suis
Where do Actinomycetes live?
mucous membranes, oral cavity, and nasopharynx of mammals
What disease does Actinomycetes cause?
pyogenic or granulomatous reactions with possible multiple draining tracts and rare LN involvement
What organism causes pyogenic or granulomatous reactions with possible multiple draining tracts and rare LN involvement?
Actinomycetes
What disease does Actinomycetes bovis cause?
"lumpy jaw" of cattle, granulomatous suppurative lesions involving bone and soft tissue
What organism causes "lumpy jaw" in cattle?
Actinomycetes bovis
What organism causes granulomatous suppurative lesions involving bone and soft tissue?
Actinomycetes bovis
What disease does Actinomycetes vicosus cause?
cutanteous pyogranulomas, pyothorax, osteomyelitis of dogs and cats
What organism causes cutaneous pyogranulomas, pyothorax, and osteolmyelitis of dogs and cats?
Actinomycetes viscosus
What disease does Actinomycetes hordeovulnaris cause?
cutaneous pyogranulomas, pyothorax, osteomyelitis often associated with migrating foxtail awns
What organism cause cutaneous pyogranulomas, pyothorax, osteomyelitis associated with migrating foxtail awns?
Actinomycetes hordevulnaris
How do we diagnose Actinomycetes hordevulnaris?
sample exudates, aspirates, tissues,
capnophilic, non-hemolytic
sulfur granules in tissue and exudate
What disease is caused by Nocardia asteroides?
dogs: cutaneous granulomas and pyothorax
cattle: infrequent mastitis
horses: pneumonia in SCID foals
How do we diagnose Nocardia asteroides?
sample: exudates, aspirates, milk, tissues
88 spp.
can be acid-fast, aerobic, and grows in 5 days
What organism causes cutaneous granulomas and pyothorax in dogs, infrequent mastitis in cattle, and pneumonia in SCID foals?
Nocardia asteroides
What is the pathogenesis of Nocardia?
suppurative and pyogranulomatous reactions in immunosuppressed hosts or compromised tissues,
consistent LN involvement
What are the virulence factors of Nocardia?
facultative IC microbe of phagocytes
How is Nocardia acquired?
inhalation, break in skin, ingestion, or into teat canal
Where does Nocardia live?
in the soil
Where does Dermatophilus congolensis live?
in foci of infection of carrier animals or within scabs in the environment,
tropical and sub-tropical regions
What is the pathogenesis of Dermatophilus congolensis?
invasion, acute inflammatory response, microabscesses, serous exudate, regeneration of epithelium, invasion again
What disease does Dermatophilus congolensis cause?
"rain scald", cutaneous streptothricosis, lumpy wool, strawberry footrot
What organism causes "rain scald", strawberry footrot, lumpy wool, cutaneous streptothricosis?
Dermatophilus congolensis
What is "rain scald"?
exudative epidermitis with thick crusts and hair loss with scabs
What animals are affected by Dermatohilus congolensis?
cattle, horses, sheep, and goats
How do we detect Dermatophilus congolensis?
scabs,
capnophilic,
hemolytic
How do we treat Dermatophilus congolensis?
grooming and shelter,
oral antimicrobials
What is the morphology of Bacillus anthracis?
large broad rods
Is Bacillus anthracis zoonotic?
YES
Does Bacillus anthracis form a spore?
YES, when exposed to oxygen
Are the spores of Bacillus anthracis infectious?
YES
Are the vegetative cells of Bacillus anthracis infectious?
NO
Where is Bacillus anthracis found?
worldwide
Is Anthrax a seasonal disease?
YES, related to temperature, drought, rains
How is Bacillus anthracis acquired?
ingestion or inhalation of spores
How do humans get Bacillus anthracis?
cutaneous infection, or ingested or inhaled
What are the virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis?
facultative IC microbes of mac's,
pore-formation in phagolysosome,
antiphagocytic capsule,
tripartite toxin (lethal and edema toxins)
What is the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis?
phagocytosed, germination, escape mac's, EC growth, toxin production, mac's recruited, cytokine production, host symptoms and death, nutrient depletion, sporulation
What disease does Bacillus anthracis cause in ruminants?
sudden death with rare fever and rare bleeding from orofices, subcutaneous hemorrhage and edema, no rigor mortis but rapid decomposition
What organism causes sudden death with rare fever and rare bleeding from orofices in ruminants?
Bacillus anthracis
What disease does Bacillus anthracis cause in equids and wild herbivores?
fever, restlessness, dyspnea, agitation, then death
What organism can cause fever, restlessness, dyspnea, agitation, then death of equids and wild herbivores?
Bacillus anthracis
What disease does Bacillus anthracis cause in pigs and carnivores?
local pharyngeal edema, swelling of face, neck, and LNs, possibly death
What organism causes local pharyngeal edema, swelling of face, neck and LNs, and possibly death in pigs and carnivores?
Bacillus anthracis
Can birds get Anthrax?
Not really
How do we diagnose Bacillus anthracis?
blood from superficial vessel or peritoneal fuid,
Gram stain, capsule stain, aerobic culture
How do we prevent Bacillus anthracis?
sterne vaccine (modified live) for cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and pigs
How do we control Bacillus anthracis?
relocate surviving herd with 3 weeks of quarantine,
antimicrobial prophylaxis 10 days before or after vaccine,
incinerate carcass,
disinfect barn and soil,
carefully performed necropsy, report suspected cases (get help)
Is Bacillus anthracis zoonotic?
YES
How is Bacillus anthracis transmitted to humans?
wound contamination, bioterrorism, contaminated meat, inhalation
What is the cutaneous form of human Anthrax?
malignant carbuncle, a black scab surrounded by edema
What is the intestinal form of human Anthrax?
abdominal pain, ascites, hematochezia/melana, hematemesis, possible death if not treated
What is the inhalational form of human Anthrax?
"woolsorter's disease", mild signs progressing to severe dyspnea and pulonary edema, hemorrhagic lymphadenitis/mediastinitis, septicemia, hemorrhagic meningitis, death if not treated
Is there a vaccine for Bacillus anthracis?
yes, cell free filtrate with tripartite toxin
What is the morphology of Clostridium?
large rods
Is Clostridium an anaerobe?
yes
Does Clostridium form a spore?
yes
Where is Clostridium found?
soil, freshwater, marine sediments, GI tract of humans and animals
How is Clostridium acquired?
wound contamination and ingestion, often endogenous
What are the neurotoxic types of Clostridium?
C. tetani, C. botulinum
What are the histotoxic types of Clostridium?
C. chauvoei, C. haemolyticum, C. novyi, C. perfringens, C. septicum, and C. sordellii
What are the enterocolitis types of Clostridium?
C. prefringens and C. difficile
Where is Clostridium botulinum found?
wide uneven distribution in soils and aquatic environments
When does germination occur?
in anaerobic conditions
Why is botulism an intoxication?
Because the organism has made toxins that are ingested, and is not infecting the animal
What is the pathogenesis of Clostridium botulinum?
toxin goes to the NMJ and suppresses release of ACh which leads to flaccid paralysis
What is the most potent toxin known?
botulism toxin
What species often acquire Clostridium botulinum?
waterfowl, ruminants, horses, poultry, and mink, some types affect dogs and pigs
What diseases does Clostridium botulinum cause?
mydriasis, ptosis, slow tongue retraction, decreased tongue tone, dysphagia (may lead to aspiration pneumonia), decreased tail tone, normal temperature, recumbancy, paralysis of respiratory muscles and eventual death
How do we diagnose Clostridium botulinum?
anaerobic feed culture (heat to induce germination),
toxin detection in serum, feces, GI contents, feed
How do we treat Clostridium botulinum?
antitoxin for horses
How do we prevent/control Clostridium botulinum?
toxoid vaccination (horses, mink),
autoclaving is lethal to spores,
salt, nitrates, nitrites suppress germination in food
What disease is caused by Clostridium tetani?
protraction of 3rd eyelid, erectness of ears, bruxism, stiff tail, "saw horse" stance, tetanic spasms, with stimuli then permanent, elevated body temperature, altered heart and respiratory rates, recumbancy, eventual death from respriatory arrest
Where do we find spores of Clostridium tetani?
in soil, especially if feces are nearby
What is the morphology of Clostridium tetani?
rod with terminal spore
How is Clostridium tetani acquired?
spores enter traumatized tissue/wounds
What is the pathogenesis of Clostridium tetani?
toxin within vesicle goes up an axon to a peripheral nerve cell body and across the synapse to the terminal of the presynaptic inhibitory interneuron and prevents NT release
Who is most susceptible to Clostridium tetani?
humans, horses > pigs > cattle, sheep > dogs, cats
How do we diagnose Clostridium tetani?
not often done, microbes in wound exudate, anaerobic culture, toxin detection in serum
How do we prevent Clostridium tetani?
toxoid vaccine, autoclaving to kill spores