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48 Cards in this Set

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Classifications of Anemia
Bone marrow response
RBC size
Hb concentration
Classification of bone marrow response
Regenerative: increased reticulocytes

Nonregenerative: bone marrow dysfunction
Classification of RBC size
Normocytic - chronic disorders

Macrocytic - rare, suggests regeneration

Microcytic - iron deficiency
Hypochromic vs Normochoromic anemia
Hypochromic: reduced Hb concentration

Reticulocytes are hypochromic

Normochromic: normal Hb concentration
Coombs Test
agglutination test
Hematopoesis
generation of blood in bone marrow
Reticulocytes are absent in...
horses
Spherocytes
RBC with no central pallor
only K9

Suggest immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA)
Name 2 groups of feline reticulocytes
aggregate & punctate
Aggregate reticulocytes
contains large clumps of reticulum
Punctate reticulocytes
contains 2-8 small, singular basophilic granules

not counted
Rouleax formation
grouping of RBCs in stacks

increased fibrinogen in plasma
inflammation

normal in horses
Agglutination
clumping of RBC

immune-meddiated
Anisocytosis
variation in RBC size
Poikilocytosis
variation in shape
Spiculated cells
RBCs with surface spicules
Crenation
blood smear artifact
Basophilic stippling
dark blue bodies in immature RBC

common in ruminants

K9s - lead poisoning
Howell-Jolly Body
basophilic nuclear particle
normal near spleen

Increased with spleen disorder
Heinz Body
Blue bodies on peripheral wall of cell

Denaturation of Hb - drugs, chemicals.
Blood parasites
Hemobartonella Felis/Canis
Babesia sp.
Ehrlichia sp.
Coagulation factors
plasma proteins (albumin, fibrinogen)

synthesized in liver
Intrinsic pathway of coagulation
essential
occurs intravascularly
Extrinsic pathway of coagulation
tissue pathway
enhances coagulation
Preffered anticoagulant for coagulation tests
sodium citrate
light blue top
Whole blood clotting time (Lee-White method)
3 tubes with blood are held in hand. Each tube is tilted every 30 sec until clotting occurs.

Clotting time: time between blood in syringe to clot in 3rd tube
Activated Clotting Time (ACT)
Commercially available ACT tubes are used.
Bleeding time
make puncture & remove blood every 30sec
Outlab clotting tests
Use citrated plasma

Activated Partial Thromboplastic Time (APTT)- intrinsic

One-Stage Prothrombin Time (OSPT) - extrinsic
Coagulation disorders are caused by...
liver disorder, bone marrow intoxication (rat poison)
Thrombocytopenia
decreased platelets
RBC precursors
rubriblast
prorubricyte
rubricyte
metarubricyte
polychromatophilic erythrocyte
Granulocyte precursors
myeloblast
progranulocyte

myelocytes
metamyelocytes
band
Thrombocyte precursors
megakaryoblast
promegakaryocyte
megakaryocyte
thrombocyte
Other cells observed in bone marrow films
lymphocyte
plasma cells
monocyte & macrophage
osteoblasts & osteoclasts
Dog blood typing
8 blood types

no clinical signs w/ 1st transfusion b/c no natural antibodies to blood
Feline blood typing
A, B, AB

A - majority
B - purebred
AB - rare

Mixing blood types = transfusion reaction, death
Cattle blood typing
11 blood groups

Only Anti-J antibodies
Horse blood typing
no natural occuring antibodies, only from vax
Crossmatching procedure
mix blood
no match if agglutination & hemolysis
Control serum
consists of pooled, freeze-dried serum from many patients
Assayed control serum
serum is analyzed repeatedly for serum constituents & acceptable values are statistically established
Standard deviation
extent of random variation in group of observation
Standard
solution with exact known amount of constituent
Quality control of refractometer
check daily with distilled water
When should controls be done
lot number of reagent
shift change in personell
after instrument maintenance
Trend
gradual increase/decrease over 6 consecutive days
Shift
sudden but consistent change increase/decrease from mean value