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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are some examples of copper metalloenzymes?
Superoxide dismutase
Cytochrome C oxidase
Lysyl Oxidase
Dopamine b-hydroxylase
What is the rxn:
Superoxide dismutase?
O2- + 2H+ --> H2O2 + O2
What is the rxn:
Cytochrome C Oxidase?
Last step in e-transport chain:

½ O2 + 2e- + 2H+ --> H2O
What is the rxn:
Reaction of tyrosine to melanin (skin pigment)
What is the rxn:
Lysyl oxidase?
first step leading to crosslinking of collagen/elastin
**First enzyme that shows decreased activity due to low Cu
What are the copper oxidases in the iron cycle?
There is hepaestin (export out of intestine)
Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase)
What is their role?
Convert Fe2+ to Fe 3+
Allow for the recycling and reuptake of iron: Fe3+ form needed for binding to transferrin
What happens to those without ceruloplasmin?
They can still absorb iron normally; but end up with high amounts in liver, retina, pancreas, brain --> diabetes, neurological issues, retinal degeneration
What are the main Cu deficiency symptons?
1. Anemia!! -cant convert iron for incorp. into hemoglobin, increase ox. stress on RBCs
2. With less iron conversion: iron serum levels go down, and intestinal and liver levels go up.
3. Osteoporosis, decreased collagen crosslinking
What are Wilson's and Menke's diseases?
Both are a result of a defect in a Cu-transporting ATPase.

Wilsons = overload of Cu
Menke's = deficiency of Cu

Differency is where the gene is expressed, but in both cases it's an efflux issue.
Where is it expressed?
Wilsons: Liver, kidney, placenta - loss of homeostasis mechanism (excretion via bile)

Menke's: All over - cannot absorp!!!
How are they treated?
1. Wilsons: tetrathiomolybdenate + Zn-acetate. TTM binds food Cu with proteins and prevents absorption.

2. Menke's: No treatment; usually fatal
Symptoms of Wilsons?
Cu accum in liver, brain, kidney, cornea.

Liver cirrhosis
neurological disorders (ataxia, tremors)
Keyser-Fleischer rings - Cu deposits on cornea
Symptoms of Menkes?
Kinky hair
Seizures, failure to thrive, impaired psychomotor deterioration. Cu actually accums in kidney and intestine but is low everywhere else.
What are Copper Chaperones?
Intracellular proteins that bind Cu and deliver to target.

CCS --> superoxide dismutase
COX17 --> CCO (cytochrome oxidase)
ATX1 --> CCC2 (Menke)
How is copper status assesed?
Short term: Cu plasma or ceruloplasmin

Long term: erythrocytic SOD activity