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31 Cards in this Set

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Macrocytic anemia : deficiency symptom of ?
Thiamine: two rxn types - ox decarbox & transketolase. Transketolase is Pentose Phosphate pathway - supplies ribose for DNA synthesis
Vitamin that is a cofator in ADP-Ribosylation?
Think ADP --> NADP
Occurs when DNA break; involved w/DNA repair
Status Test:
Glutathione reductase w/ and without FAD
Signs of a Niacin deficiency?
Three D's: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia. 4th = death. Pellegra.
Where is most of B6 stored in body?
60% in muscles. All B6 rxns fo the shiff base thing EXEPT for this B6 which is part of glucogen neophosphate; when deficienct, no release. When food low, it's released.
Riboflavin; since it's involved in the kynurenic pathway to synthesize niacin. Low RF results in Niacin def.
What form is Niacin in food?
Meats: NAD, NADP
Veggies - Niacytin! Bio unavailable unless akali treated or w/ moist heat
Two vitamins that can results in anemia.
Thiamin (pentose 5-phosphate) AND Pyridoxine because its involved in heme synthesis
Pyrodoxine is involved in the synthesis of what?
(B6) involved in niacin synthesis AND heme synthesis; also involved in phospholipid metabolism.
Acyl transfer vitamin? What are some examples?
Pantothenic Acid.
As acytl-coA: acyl xfers
As proprionyl-CoA: involved in FA & protein catabolisn
Also involved in membrane localization of protein. working as FA-CoA.
What vitamin is involved in phospholipid metabolism?
What is ACP?
Acyl carrier protein: the detachable swing arm involved in FA synthesis. Detached via ACP hyrsolase. Vitamin: panthothenic acid (in phosphoryled pantatheine form)
What is the sound bite for Pantothenic acid?
It's involved in acyl transfers.
What is the sound bite for Niacin?
Involved in many dehydrogenase reactions of 2-electron transfers.
What is the sound bite for Riboflavin?
Participated in oxidation/reduction reactions that involve 1 or 2 e- transfers.
What is the sound bite for Pyridoxine?
Involved in amino acid metabolism.
What is the sound bite for Thiamin?
Cleaves C-C bonds on 2-keto groups.
What is the sound bite for Biotin?
Involved in CO2 fixing reactions.
What are the metabolic reactions that thiamin is involved in?
- oxidative decarboxylation
- transketolation
Give examples of oxidative decarboxylation reactions that involve thiamin
Branch Chain AA metabolism
Give example of reaction of transketolation
Pentose 5-Phosphate Pathway
-reducing power to NADH (FA synthesis)
-Supplies Ribose for RNA
What is the rxn that actives Biotin?
Biotin + ATP -(2 steps)-> AMP + holoenzyme
catalyzed by Biotin holocarboylase synthetase
Biochemical functions of pantothenic acid
Transfers acyl groups:
As Acetyl-CoA: xfer acetyl groups
As Proprionyl-CoA: involved in FA/protein catabolism
& involved in the membrane localization of proteins
Part of ACP that build FA's
Biochemical functions of Biotin
CO2 fixing. Four enzymes
-1st committed step in gluconeogensis (pyruvate-->OOA);
-Rate limiting step in FA synthesis (acetyl-CoA-->malonyl CoA)
-Proprionate metabolism (very important in ruminants)
-degradation of leucine
How is Biotin absorbed?
Biotin is attached to proteins. 1: proteolytic enzymes chop
2: lysine group still attached gets cut off; catalyzed w/biotinidase
Of the vitamins we've studied, which one cause ketosis? Why?
Biotin; if there is not enough biotin, acetyl-CoA cannot be converted into malonyl-CoA for FA synthesis; it builds up and causes ketosis.
Signs of deficiency:
macrocytic anemia, deafness, diahrrea
THTR-1 genetic mutation causes Thiamin deficiency;
Anemia--> pentose phosphate pathway cannot proceed
Cheilosis, Dermatitis
Riboflavin, although pyridoxine can have similiar
Vitamin associated with the three D's?
Niacin; diahrrea, dementia, dermatitis
Two of these vitamins can cause anemia; who and how?
Thiamin - Pentose Phosphate pathway/no ribose
Pyridoxine - impaired heme synthesis
What are symptons of B6 deficiency?
Impaired Niacin production, so not surprising, similar to Niacin: peripheral nueritis, weakness. & anemia (though a different form)
RF-like symptoms too - dermatitis