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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what vitamin is thiamine?
B1
what advanced deficiency causes dry beriberi?
B1 (thaimine)
1. affects the nervous system
2. leads to neuropathy
3. accompanied by inactivity and low calorie intake
what advanced deficiency causes wet beriberi?
1. B1
2. affects the cardiovascular system
3. leads to high-output cardiac failure
4. accompained by severe physical exertion and high carb intake
what deficiency causes Wernicke-Korsafoff's syndrome?
B1
*may see dry or wet beriberi
most thiamine deficiency in the US is d/t what?
alcoholism
describe dry beriberi involvement:
1. advanced deficiency of thiamine
2. involves both the peripheral and CNS
3. Peripheral nerve involvement=symmetric motor and sensory neuropathy c/ pain, paresthesias and loss of reflexes
4. legs are more affected than the arms
what causes Wernicke-Korsafoff syndrome?
1. central nervous system involvement from thiamin deficiency
what is wernicke's encephalopathy characterized by?
1. nystagmus progressing to ophthalmoplegia
2. truncal ataxia
3. confusion
what is Korsafkoff's syndrome characterized by?
1. amnesia
2. confabulation
3. impaired learning
describe wet beriberi involvement:
1. peripheral vasodilation resulting in high-output heart failure
2. dyspnea
3. tachycardia
4. cardiomegaly
5. pulmonary and peripheral edema
6. warm extremities mimicking cellulitis
what vitamin is riboflavin?
B2
what advanced deficiency causes cheilosis (mouth fissures)?
B2 (riboflavin)
1. cheilosis (mouth fissures)
2. angular stomatitis
3. glossitis
what vitamin is niacin?
B3
what deficiency causes pellagra?
B3(niacin)
what is the classic triad of pellagra?
B3 deficiency
1. dermatitis
2. diarrhea
3. dementia
what is niacin used therapeutically for?
treatment of:
1. hypercholesterolemia
2. hypertriglyceridemia
* in the form of nicotinc acid
what are the major food sources of niacin?
1. protein foods containing tryptophan
2. cereals
3. vegetables
4. dairy
what is Hartnup's disease?
1. dz of tryptophan metabolism
what is seen in Hartnup's dz?
1. dz of tryptophan metabolism
2. pellagra (3Ds)
3. B3 (niacin deficiency)
what vitamin is pantothenate?
B5
what deficiency causes enteritis and dermatitis?
1. B5 (pantothenate) def
what vitamin is pyridoxine?
B6
what is seen c/ B6 def?
1. neuropathy (frequently caused by isoniazid therapy for TB)
what are the clinical syndromes seen c/ deficiencies of B vitamins?
1. mouth soreness
2. glossitis
3. cheilosis
4. weakness
5. irritability
6. severe deficiency=peripheral neuropathy, anemia and seizures
what should be routinely perscribed for patients receiving isoniazid?
B6 (pyridoxine)
what vitamin is cyanocobalamin?
B12
what is seen with deficiency of B12?
1. pernicious anemia (lack of intrinsic factor)
2. leads to neuropathy, megaloblastic anemia, glossitis
what do you seen in pts with increased consumption of raw eggs?
1. biotin deficiency
2. leading to enteritis
3. d/t the avidin in the raw eggs blocking the biotin absorption
what do you seen in pts c/ biotin deficiency?
1. dermatitis
2. enteritis (caused by increased consumption of raw eggs, d/t the avidin in raw eggs blocking biotin absorption)
what is a co-factor for insulin and def. of this causes glucose intolerance?
chromium
what is seen in a chromium deficiency?
1. glucose intolerance
2. chromium is a cofactor for insulin
what deficiency causes leukopenia and bone demineralization?
copper def
what is seen in a copper deficiency?
1. leukopenia
2. bone demineralization
what is seen c/ B1 (thiamine) def?
1. wet beriberi (high-output cardiac failure)
2. dry beriberi (peripheral neuropathy)
3. Wernicke and Korsakoff syndromes
what is seen c/ B2 (riboflavin) def?
1. cheilosis
2. angular stomatitis
3. dermatitis
what is seen c/ B3 (niacin) def?
1. Pellagra!!=dementia, dermatitis, diarrhea
2. stomatitis
what is seen c/ B6 (pyridoxine) def?
1. peripheral neuropathy
2. cheilosis
3. stomatitis
4. convulsions in infants
5. microcytic anemia
6. seborrheic dermatitis
what is seen c/ B6 (pyridoxine) toxicity?
1. peripheal neuropathy (only B vitamin--B6--with toxicity)
what is seen c/ B12 (cobalamin)def?
1. megaloblastic anemia
2. plus neurologic sx
what is seen c/ folic acid def?
1. megaloblastic anemia
3. NO neurologic sx
what is seen c/ vitamin C def?
1. scurvy (hermorrhages--skin petechiae, bone gums; loose teeth; gingivitis)
2. poor wound healing
3. hyperkeratotic hair follicles
4. bone pain (from periosteal hemorrhages)
what def causes microcytic anemia and koilonychia (sppon-shaped fingernails)?
iron def
what mineral toxicity causes hemochromatosis?
iron toxicity
what mineral def causes goiter, cretinism and hypothyroidism?
iodine def
what mineral toxicity causes myxedema?
iodine toxicity
what is seen in fluorine def?
1. dental caries (cavities)
what is seen in fluorine toxicity?
1. fluorosis with mottling of teeth and bone exostoses
what def causes hypogeusia (decreased taste), rash and slow wound healing?
zinc def
what is seen in zinc def?
1. hypogeusia (decreased taste)
2. rash
3. slow wound healing
what def causes Menke's dz?
1. copper def
Menke's dz=x-linked, kinky hair, mental retardation
what is Menke's dz?
1. copper def
2. x-linked
3. kinky hair
4. mental retardation
what is seen with copper toxicity?
Wilson's dz
what def causes cardiomyopathy and muscle pain?
selenium def
what toxicity causes loss of hair and nails?
selenium toxicity
what is seen in selenium def?
1. cardiomyopathy
2. muscle pain
what is seen c/ manganese toxicity?
1. "manganese madness" in miners of ore
what is seen c/ chromium def?
impaired glucose tolerance
what def does the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum cause?
B12 def
what is seen with folic acid def?
1. neural tube defects
2. megaloblastic anemia (NO neurologic sx)
what is seen c/ iodine def?
1. hypothyroidism
2. cretinism
3. goiter
what is plummer-vinson syndrome?
1. from iron def
2. esophageal webs
3. spoon nails
what def causes Plummer-vinson sx?
iron def
what is seen with iron toxicity?
1. hemochromatosis
2. leading to multiorgan failure and
3. bronze diabetes
what is bronze diabetes?
hemochromatosis and multiorgan failure from iron toxicity
what is seen with selenium def?
1. myopathy
2. Keshan's disease (childhood cardiomyopathy)
what is Keshan's dz?
1. childhood cardiomyopathy
2. secondary to selenium def
3. very common in China