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28 Cards in this Set

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Vitamin A Deficiency
Night Blindness
xeropthalmia (dry eyes)
scaly rash
Bitot's spots on cornea
increased infections
Vitamin A Excess
Pseudotumor Cerebri (increased ICP)

bone thickening
teratogen
Vitamin D Deficiency
Rickets, Osteomalacia
Vitamin D Excess
Hypercalcemia, renal issues, nausea/vomiting
Vitamin E Deficiency
Anemia
Peripheral Neuropathy
Ataxia
Vitamin E Excess
nEcrotizing Enterocolitis
Vitamin K Deficiency
hemorrhage
prolonged PT
Vitamin K excess
hemolysis (kernicterus)
Vitamin B1 - what is it's name?
What does it cause?
Thiamine

Wet Beriberi (high output card failure)
Dry Beriberi (peripheral neuropathy)
Wernicke Korsakoff
Vitamin B2
Riboflavin

Cheilosis
Angular Stomatitis
Dermatitis
Vitamin B3
Niacin

Pellagra (3 D's - Dementia, Dermatitis, Diarrhea)
& Stomatitis
Vitamin B6

Which drug often causes this deficiency?
Pyridoxine

Izoniazid causes!!

Peripheral Neuropathy
Convulsions in Infants

Microcytic Anemia

Skin Changes -
Cheilosis/Stomatitis
Seborrheic Dermatitis

TOXICITY - Peripheral Neuropathy
Vitamin B12 deficiency

What typically causes this deficiency?
Cobalamin

Megaloblastic anemia plus neuro sx

Deficiency usually caused by 1) pernicious anemia (Abx to parietal cell intrinsic factor).
Use Schilling test to dx.
also
2) Removal of Ileum
3) Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium Latum
Folic Acid

What drug can cause deficiency in this?
Megaloblastic Anemia without neuro sx

Anticonvulsants (esp phenytoin)
Vitamin C Deficiency
Scurvy (hemorrhages - skin petechiae, bone, gums, loose teeth)

Poor wound healing

Hyperkeratotic hair follicles
bone pain (periosteal hemorrhage)
Iron Deficiency

toxicity?
Microcytic Anemia
Koilonychia (spoon fingernails)

Toxicity = hemochromatosis
Iodine Deficiency

toxicity?
Goiter
Cretinism
Hypothyroidism

Toxicity - Myxedema
Fluorine

toxicity?
Dental Cavities

toxicity = fluorosis with mottled teeth and bone exostoses
Zinc
Hypogeusia (decreased taste)
rash
slow wound healing
Copper

toxicity?
Menke's Disease (x-linked, kinky hair, mental retardation)

toxicity = Wilsons disease
Selenium
cardiomyopathy
muscle pain

toxicity = loss of hair and nails
manganese toxicity
toxicity = manganese madness in miners of ore
chromium
impaired glucose tolerance
What disorders can lead to deficiency of fat soluble vitamins?
(DAKE are fat soluble vitamins)

Malabsorption (CF, Cirrhosis, Celiac disease/sprue, duodenal bypass, bile duct obstruction, pancreatic insuff, chronic giardia)

High dose oral supplements
parenteral if needed
What deficiencies occur in alcoholics?
Thiamine
Magnesium
Folate
Vitamin A analogs such as isotretinoin (tx for acne) are contraindicated when?

What do you do before giving?
Pregnancy (teratogens)

Pregnancy test before giving.
Counsel and put on birth control and give pregnancy tests periodically.
What are physical findings in Rickets?
Craniotabes (poorly mineralized skull and bone that feel like ping pong ball)

Rachitic Rosary (costochondral beading with round masses on anterior rib cage)

Delayed Fontanelle closure

Bossing of skull
Kyphoscoliosis
Bowlegs, Knocknees

Bone changes first appear low ends radius and ulna on xray
What vitamin is given to all newborns?
Vitamin K to prevent a/g hemorrhagic disease of newborn.