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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fat soluble
ADEK, absorption dependent on gut (ileum) and pancreas
toxicity more common because they accumulate in fat
malabsorption can cause def
water soluble
B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, biotin, folate
all wash out easily from body except B12 which is stored in liver
A def
night blindness, dry skin
A function, exceess
constituent of visual pigment; arthralgias, fatigue, headahce, skin change, sore throat, alopecia
found in leafy veggies
B1 (thiamine) def
Beriberi and WK syndrome; seen in alcoholism and malnutrition
dry: polyneuritis
wet: high output CF
B1 function
cofactor for oxidative decarboxy of a-ketoacids, cofactor for transketolase in HMP shunt
B2 (riboflavin) def
angular stomatitis, cheilosis, corneal vascularization
B2 function
cofactor in ox-red
B3 def
pellagra can be caused by Hartnup disease (decreased tryp absorption), malignant carcinoid syndrome and INH
sxs: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
B3 function
constituent of NAD, NADP
derived from tryp using B6
B6 (pyridoxine) def
convulsions, hyperirritability (def induced by INH and OCP), peripheral neuropathy
B5 function
coverted to pyridoxal phosphate - transaminatiors (ALT, AST), decarbox, heme synthesis
B12 (cobalamin) def
macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia; neuro sxs (optic neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration, parasthesia), glossitis
def caused by: malabsorption, lack of IF, or absence of terminal ileum
Schilling test to detect def
abnormal myelin seen
B12 function
cofactor for homocysteine methylation (transfers CH3 groups)
stored in liver
very large reserve
synthesized by microorganisms
Folic acid def
most common vitamin def; macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia
no neuro sxs
folic acid function
coenzyme (tetrahydrofolate) for 1 carbon transfer; involved in Me reactions
important for synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA
Biotin def
dermitits, enteritis, caused by antiobiotic use, ingestion of raw eggs
Biotin function
cofactor for caboxylations
Vit C def
scurvy- swollen gums, bruising, anemia, poor wound healing
Vit C funciton
necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis
facilitates iron absorption by keeping iron in Fe2 reduced state
necessary cofactor for DA-->NE
Vit D def
rickets in children (bending bones), osteomalacia in adults (soft bones), hypocalcemic tetany
function vit D
increase intestinal absorption of Ca and P
vit D excess
hypercalcemia, loss of appetite, stupor
seen in sarcoidosis- disease where epithelial macrophages convert vit D into active form
storage form of vitamin D
25-OH D3
active form of vit D
1, 25 (OH)2 D3
vit D from milk
ergocalciferol, consumed in milk D2
vit D from sun skin
cholecalciferol D3
Vit E def
increased fragility of erythrocytes, neurodysfunction
vit E function
antioxidant (protects erythrocytes from hemolysis)
vit K def
neonatal hemorrhage with increased PT and PTT but normal bleeding time because neonates have sterile intestines and are unable to synthesize vit K
vit K function
catalyzes gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on various proteins concerned with blood clotting
synthesized by intestinal flora
K dependent clotting factors
protein C and S
warfarin is vitamin K antagonist
Zinc deficiency
delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased adult hair, may predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis
Clinical characteristics of WK syndrome
ocular distrubances, nystagmus
gait ataxia
mental dysfunction (confusion, apathy, listlessness, disorientation)
Korsakoff psychosis- retrograde recall, inability ot acquire new info
ntureint def assoc with cheilosis, glossitis, stomatitis
iron, riboflavin, niacin, folate, B12
how does niacin help tx type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia
inhibits lipolysis in adipose-->less circulating free fatty acids --> less fatty acids to liver --> less VLDL --> less LDL
INH leads to deficiency in
B6 and B3
folic acid is involved in synthesis of...
purines (A and G) and thymine
where is B12 absorbed
distal ileum
Crohns and sprue can cause absorption problems
what organs help absorb B12
salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, distal ileum
antioxidant vitamins
C, E and A
how does vit D work at the cell
interacts with target cell DNA to selectively stimulate or repress gene stimulation
first vit D hydroxylation
25, in liver
second vit D hydroxylation
1, in kidney