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37 Cards in this Set

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Can vitamins be oxidized to produce energy?
No
What are the causes of vitamins deficiency?
1- Inadequate dietary intake.
2- Malabsorption.
3- Absence for the enzymes which transport, activate, & utilize vitamins.
4- Increased demand.
5- Increased excretion.
6- Some drugs.
What are the two classes of vitamins?
1- Fat-soluble.
2- Water-soluble.
What are the major fat-soluble vitamins?
ADEK
What does the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins require?
1- Lipids.
2- Bile Salts.
Do fat-soluble vitamins require a carrier protein?
yes
Where are the fat-soluble vitamins stored?
liver
Are the fat-soluble vitamns excreted?
No
When do the manifestations of a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins become manifest?
When the stores are depleted
Can the fat-soluble vitamins become toxic?
Yes, This is called hypervitaminosis.
How can we prevent the fat-soluble vitamins deficiency?
Single large dose
What are the water-soluble vitamins?
B Complex group and C
Compounds with Vitamin A activity are called
Retinoids
Retinoids are
polyisoprenoid compunds
Retinoids have a .... ring
Beta-inone
The provitamin of Vitamin A
Beta-Carotene
The color of beta-carotenes
Yellow to orange
How is Beta-carotene converted to vitamin A?
Oxidation in the liver = 2 Vitamin A
Name 3 different compounds with Vitamin A activity?
Retinol
Retinal
Retinoic Acid
Oxidation of retinol or retinal to retinoic acid is
Irreversible
What are the animal sources of Vitamin A?
Milk
Butter
Egg Yolk
Liver
Fish Liver oils
Animal sources of beta-carotene:
Corpus luteum
Cow's milk
1 IU = ? RE
0.3 RE = 0.3 * microgram retinal
Daily Vitamin A requirements for children
1400-2000 IU
Daily Vitamin A requirements for females
4000 IU
Daily Vitamin A requirements for Males & pregnant females
5000 IU
Retinoids are incorporated into
cholymicrons
Retinal is required for
Normal vision
Retinoic acid is implicated in
growth and differentiation
Retinol is necessary for the
reproductive system
Beta carotene acts as an
antioxidant
Rhodopsin is found in ... in the eye
rods
Rhodopsin consists of
Opsin + 11-cis retinal
What are the biological functions of Vitamin A?
1- Vision in dim light.
2- Maintenance of normal epithelium and skin.
3- Sulfation of the mucopolysaccharides in the matrix of bones.
4- They can act as steroid hormones.
5- Retinoic acid's role in growth and differentiation.
6- Beta-carotenes act as antioxidants.
What are the manifestations of Vitamin A deficiency:
1- Nyctalopia.
2- Xerophthalmia.
3- Keratomalacia.
4- Xeroderma.
5- Keratinizing mataplasia.
Bitot's spots
Greyish-white triangular plaques firmly adherent to the conjunctiva.
Manifestations of hypervitaminosis A
1- Anorexia and vomiting.
2- Peeling of skin.
3- Painful bones and painful joints.
4- Loss of hair.
5- Enlargement of liver and spleen.