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124 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Vitamin A Role
Regulates cell growth and cell death. Growth/maintenance of bones/teeth; skin, mucous membranes, and other epithelial cells. Required for reproduction, immune function, vision/night vision, wound healing.
Vitamin A Deficiency
Eyes: night blindness, Bitot’s spots (foamy deposits on cornea), keratomalacia (corneal dryness, itching), progressing to xerophthalmia (corneal scarring and degeneration, blindness). Skin, mucous membranes: hyperkeratosis (bumpy dry skin from clogged hair follicles); compromised linings of respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems. Impaired immunity, growth, and reproduction.
Vitamin A Sources
Liver, egg yolk, butterfat, cream, spinach, collards, and other dark-greens
Vitamin A Toxicity
Teratogenic (birth defects from excessive use during pregnancy), dry itchy skin. Hair loss. Bone/joint pain. Bone abnormalities. Loss of appetite. Liver damage.
Vitamin D Role
Regulates calcium and phosphorus levels by regulating their intestinal absorption, retention by the kidneys, deposition into bone, and absorption from bone when calcium and phosphorus blood levels dip. Required for bone/teeth growth and maintenance
Vitamin D Deficiency
Growth retardation. Rickets (bowed legs, knocked knees, other skeletal deformities) develop in childhood. Adults develop osteomalacia (excessive loss of calcium from bones) with risk of bone fracture. Severe deficiency due to illness or metabolic error causes twitching and muscle spasms
Vitamin D Sources
Synthesis by the body when skin is exposed to sunlight, vitamin D-fortified milk, fish and liver oils
Vitamin D Toxicity
Impairs kidney function; excessive urination and thirst. Kidney stones and calcium deposition in other soft tissues – heart, blood vessels, and membranes in bone joints. Joint pain. Bone loss. Growth retardation
Vitamin E Role
As a fat-soluble antioxidant, it protects unsaturated fats, phospholipids, and other fat-soluble substances; discourages oxidation of blood lipids and their subsequent deposition in arteries; helps prevent oxygen damage in the lungs, skin eyes liver, and other organs. Helps maintain red blood cell integrity, nervous system function
Vitamin E Deficiency
Hemolysis of red blood cells and hemolytic anemia, especially in premature babies. Retinopathy of prematurity. Neurological problems
Vitamin E Sources
Wheat germ, nuts and seeds such as pumpkin, sunflower, sesame. Vegetable oils, margarine, salad dressings
Vitamin E Toxicity
Interferes with blood clotting
Vitamin K Role
Required in production of thrombin for blood clotting. Involved in bone formation and maintenance
Vitamin K Deficiency
Hemorrhage. Possible decrease in bone density
Vitamin K Sources
Synthesis by intestinal bacteria. Vegetable source: dark green leafy vegetables, vegetables in cabbage family. Animal source: egg yolk, butterfat, liver
Vitamin K Toxicity
Possible interference with anticoagulation medication
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Role
As part of coenzyme TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate), it functions in several energy-producing pathways, is required for RNA and DNA synthesis, and is involved in nervous system function
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Deficiency
Beriberi deficiency disease: painful leg muscles, overall muscle weakness and wasting, loss of reflexes, and ultimately paralysis; edema, enlarged heart and heart failure; loss of appetite; depression, mental confusion; death. When complicated by alcoholism, Wernicke/Korsakoff syndrome with mental/emotional symptoms, involuntary eye movements or eye paralysis
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Sources
Pork. Organ meats. Enriched or fortified bread, pasta, rice, breakfast cereals; whole grain products. Nuts, seeds, legumes. (Widely distributed in small amounts in most fruits, vegetables, animal products, and dairy foods)
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Toxicity
Not determined
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Role
As part of coenzyme FMN (flavin mononucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), it functions in energy production and metabolism of amino acids. Involved in oxidation/reduction reactions. Required for vision
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Deficiency
Ariboflavinosis deficiency disease: glossitis and stomatitis (inflamed tongue and mouth), cheilosis (fissures at corners of mouth), seborrheic dermatitis (inflammation of skin’s oil-producing glands). Sensitivity to light. Ariboflavinosis usually coexists with other vitamin deficiencies
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Sources
Milk, other dairy products. Liver, other organ meats. Enriched or fortified grain products; whole-grain products. Dark-green vegetables
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Toxicity
Not determined
Niacin (Vitamin B3) Role
As part of coenzymes NAD and NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/phosphate), it functions in energy metabolism and synthesis of fatty acids, steroid hormones, DNA, and amino acids
Niacin (Vitamin B3) Deficiency
Pellagra deficiency disease: The 4 Ds – dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis, death. Rough, darkened skin rash where exposed to sun. Inflamed mouth and tongue. Neuritis, confusion, anxiety
Niacin (Vitamin B3) Sources
Eggs, organ meats, meats, poultry, fish, peas, peanuts, soybeans. Enriched or fortified grain products; whole-grain products. Milk, cheese, yogurt. (Tryptophan can be converted to niacin)
Niacin (Vitamin B3) Toxicity
Rash, headache, nausea, glucose intolerance, blurred vision.
Extremely high doses are associated with liver damage
Pantothenic Acid Role
As part of coenzyme A, it has many metabolic activities, including energy production and synthesis of lipids, steroid hormones, and proteins
Pantothenic Acid Deficiency
Irritability, fatigue, apathy, nausea, vomiting, tingling, muscle cramps. (Deficiency symptoms seen only in experimental settings)
Pantothenic Acid Sources
Widely distributed in most foods. Eggs, milk, yogurt. Fish, shellfish, meat, poultry. Peas, potatoes, winter squash
Pantothenic Acid Toxicity
Not determined
Biotin Role
As part of several coenzymes, it has many metabolic activities, including DNA and lipid synthesis, and energy production from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Biotin Deficiency
Hair loss, rash, convulsions, impaired growth. (Deficiency symptoms seen in infants with rare genetic error of biotin metabolism)
Biotin Sources
Cauliflower, liver, nuts, peanuts, cheese, egg yolks (raw egg whites interfere with biotin absorption). Little information is available on food sources
Biotin Toxicity
Not determined
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Role
As part of PLP (pyridoxal phosphate) and other coenzymes, it functions in amino acid, carbohydrate, and fatty acid metabolism; red and white blood cell synthesis; conversion of tryptophan to niacin; synthesis of several neurotransmitters
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Deficiency
Anemia. Depression, confusion, headache, convulsions. Seborrheic dermatitis. Possible relation to cardiovascular disease from homocysteine build-up
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Sources
Fortified breakfast cereals. Liver, other meat, poultry, seafood, fish. Bananas, avocados, green and leafy vegetables, legumes, potatoes
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Toxicity
Nerve damage causing weakness, numbness, inability to walk. At high doses, damage may be irreversible
Folate (Folic Acid) Role
As the coenzyme THFA (tetrahydrofolic acid), involved in DNA and RNA synthesis, red blood cell maturation, synthesis of neurotransmitters, and metabolism of homocysteine and other amino acids. Important for reproduction
Folate (Folic Acid) Deficiency
Anemia. Impaired immunity. Diarrhea. Neuropathy, depression, confusion, fatigue. Sore inflamed mouth and tongue. Possible relation to cardiovascular disease from homocysteine build-up. Inadequate folate early in pregnancy related to neural tube birth defects such as spina bifida
Folate (Folic Acid) Sources
Fortified breakfast cereals, wheat germ. Leafy green vegetables, asparagus, broccoli, cauliflower. Oranges. Peanuts, legumes, seeds such as pumpkin or sunflower. Liver
Folate (Folic Acid) Toxicity
Masks vitamin B12 deficiency. Allergic reactions possible. May interfere with anti-seizure medications
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
As part of cobalamin coenzymes, involved in cell synthesis, red blood cell maturation. Regeneration of folate. Maintenance of protective sheath around nerve fibers. Involved in fatty acid metabolism
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Pernicious anemia. Impaired immunity. Diarrhea. Neuropathy, which becomes irreversible. Possible relation to cardiovascular disease from homocysteine build-up
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Liver and other meats, poultry, fish, and seafood. Milk, cheese, eggs. Only vegetable sources are fortified foods and Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Not determined
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Role
An antioxidant. Needed for collagen synthesis: wound healing, blood vessel integrity, maintenance of gums, bone growth and maintenance. Aids iron absorption. Involved in thyroxin metabolism; synthesis of neurotransmitters, carnitine, and amino acids
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Deficiency
Scurvy deficiency disease: Broken blood vessels with tiny hemorrhages; easily bruised; bleeding gums and loose or missing teeth; pain in joints, bones, muscles; non-healing wounds, bedsores; delayed bone growth, bone fragility; anemia. Severe scurvy can be fatal
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Sources
Citrus fruits, kiwi, strawberries, peppers, cabbage-family vegetables, dark leafy greens, potatoes, melon, papaya
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Toxicity
May cause diarrhea. Tooth erosion. Excessive iron absorption. Buildup of oxalates and uric acid may cause kidney stones. Interference with diagnostic testing and with some medications
Choline Role
A methyl donor. A component of bile, and of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. As part of the phospholipid lecithin, it is an emulsifier and functions in cell membranes
Choline Deficiency
Fatty liver and liver damage
Choline Sources
Egg yolk, liver, milk and dairy products, soybeans, peanuts
Choline Toxicity
Fishy body odor, vomiting, excess sweating and salivation, liver damage, digestive disturbance, low blood pressure
Sodium Role
Major cation in extracellular fluid. Involved in regulating body water distribution, blood pressure, acid-base balance, and nerve and muscle function
Sodium Deficiency
Muscle cramps, fatigue
Sodium Sources
Table salt, salty snacks and condiments, processed meats, pickles, sauerkraut, salty cheeses, soy sauce, flavoring salts
Sodium Toxicity
Excess sodium is associated with excessive fluid retention, high blood pressure and its consequences
Potassium Role
Major intracellular cation. Involved in transmitting nerve impulses, regulating blood pressure, and controlling muscle contractility
Potassium Deficiency
Muscle cramps, heartbeat irregularities, loss of appetite, weakness, drowsiness
Potassium Sources
Bananas, potatoes, avocados, oranges, other fruits and vegetables; meats, fish, seafood, poultry; milk and dairy products
Potassium Toxicity
Excess unlikely in healthy people. No more than 18,000 mg is advised. Acute hyperkalemia from excess intake can cause cardiac arrest
Chloride Role
Major anion in extracellular fluid. Involved in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. Component of gastric juice
Chloride Deficiency
Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, confusion, stupor
Chloride Sources
Occurs with sodium
Chloride Toxicity
Not determined
Calcium Role
Structural material for bones and teeth. Involved in regulating nerve conduction, blood clotting, membrane permeability, nerve irritability, and muscle contraction
Calcium Deficiency
Slow, stunted growth; osteoporosis (bone loss) with dowager’s hump, bone fractures, bone pain. Tooth loss. Muscle cramping
Calcium Sources
Milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream; canned fishes with bones; tofu made with calcium carbonate; fortified fruit juices, broccoli, kale, almonds
Calcium Toxicity
May interfere with absorption of iron, zinc, magnesium, and other minerals. May cause kidney stones; may be constipating. Very high blood calcium levels cause coma and cardiac arrest
Phosphorus Role
Structural material for bones and teeth. Component of nucleic acids, of phospholipids, of numerous enzymes, and of high-energy compounds such as ATP
Phosphorus Deficiency
Weakness, muscle loss, bone loss and pain, anorexia. (Rare. Most likely in people taking phosphorus-binding drugs)
Phosphorus Sources
Protein-rich foods. Cereal grains. Soft drinks. Present in most foods
Phosphorus Toxicity
Contributor to osteoporosis. Lowers blood calcium levels. Severe calcium depletion causes convulsions, muscle spasms
Magnesium Role
Participates in hundreds of enzyme reactions. Regulates muscle contractility. Involved in nerve function and blood clotting, release of energy from ATP
Magnesium Deficiency
Weakness, confusion. Constipation. Disturbed heart rhythm
Magnesium Sources
Whole grain products; green vegetables: nuts; legumes; bananas; seafood; molasses; cocoa and chocolate
Magnesium Toxicity
Nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, diarrhea. Severe hypermagnesemia depresses breathing, causes coma, cardiac arrest
Sulfur Role
Component of some amino acids, biotin, thiamin, other important compounds. Helps regulate acid-base balance. Drug detoxification
Sulfur Deficiency
None reported
Sulfur Sources
All protein-rich foods
Sulfur Toxicity
Not determined
Iron Role
Component of hemoglobin, which transports oxygen in blood; component of myoglobin, which holds oxygen for muscle for muscle use. Required for energy utilization, immune function
Iron Deficiency
Anemia with weakness, fatigue, reduced learning ability, impaired reactivity and coordination, pale skin or pallor, intolerance of cold. Slowed wound healing. Lowered resistance to infection
Iron Sources
Liver, gizzards, red meat, seafood and fish; enriched grain products; dark green leafy vegetables; nuts, legumes, dried fruits
Iron Toxicity
Gastric distress. Accidental iron poisoning in children can cause death. People with hemochromatosis are at risk of toxicity; fatigue; joint pain; liver, kidney, and heart damage; increased oxidation of blood lipids
Zinc Role
As a cofactor in many enzymes, it is involved with gene expression, protein metabolism, sexual maturation, sperm production, fetal development, and bone health. It is needed for vitamin A metabolism, wound healing, and taste perception
Zinc Deficiency
Growth retardation, delayed puberty, hypogonadism; loss of taste sensations, anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea; hair loss; delayed wound healing; night blindness; impaired immunity
Zinc Sources
Protein-rich foods, especially oysters, red meat, other seafood, whole-grain products
Zinc Toxicity
Impaired immunity, impaired copper absorption. Acute toxicity causes nausea, vomiting, cramping
Selenium Role
Component of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Works synergistically with vitamin E. Involved in immune function and thyroid metabolism
Selenium Deficiency
Impaired immunity. Susceptibility to Keshan disease (a heart disorder)
Selenium Sources
Brazil nuts; tuna fish, seafood, meats and poultry, other fish; whole-grain products
Selenium Toxicity
Fatigue, “garlic body odor”, irritability, abnormal fingernails, hair loss, skin lesions
Iodine Role
As a component of thyroid hormones, it is involved with regulating body temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction, and growth
Iodine Deficiency
Simple goiter is deficiency disease: enlargement of the thyroid gland, cold intolerance, weight gain, sluggishness, decreased body temperature. Cretinism is deficiency disease caused by inadequate iodine intake during pregnancy: mental retardation, stunted growth, deafness
Iodine Sources
Iodized salt; ocean fish and seafood; seaweed; foods produced on iodine-rich soils (usually near an ocean); bread made with dough conditioners; dairy products (if iodine-containing disinfectants are used to clean processing areas)
Iodine Toxicity
Toxicity produces goiter
Copper Role
Functions of copper-containing enzymes include antioxidant activity; participation in electron transport, synthesis of connective tissue, synthesis of melanin; myelination of nerve tissue. It is involved with immune function and heart health. The copper-containing enzyme ceruloplasmin catalyzes oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron
Copper Deficiency
Anemia, bone abnormalities, immune impairment. Menkes’ syndrome is a rare, usually fatal genetic disorder causing copper deficiency
Copper Sources
Liver, seafood, nuts, whole grain products, seeds, legumes
Copper Toxicity
Wilson’s disease is a genetic disorder of copper retention; untreated it causes nerve and liver problems
Manganese Role
As a cofactor for many enzymes, it assists in energy metabolism, urea synthesis, growth, and reproduction
Manganese Deficiency
None identified in humans
Manganese Sources
Whole-grain and cereal products; tea, coffee; cloves; fruits, dried fruits, and vegetables
Manganese Toxicity
Toxicity is likely to occur from breathing manganese-containing dust, not from diet. Impaired coordination and memory
Fluoride Role
A component of bones and teeth; promotes bone and tooth formation; discourages tooth decay; may reduce risk of osteoporosis
Fluoride Deficiency
Increased tooth decay; possibly increased risk of bone fractures from osteoporosis
Fluoride Sources
Water, fluoridated or with naturally occurring fluoride. Beverages and foods made with fluoride-containing water
Fluoride Toxicity
Chronic excessive consumption causes fluorosis: discoloration of the teeth, kidney problems, possible muscle or nerve problems. Chronic intake of 2-8 mg daily can mottle children’s teeth. Acute fluoride toxicity causes headaches, nausea, abnormal heart rhythm
Chromium Role
Assists in glucose metabolism
Chromium Deficiency
Neurological disorders from long-term chromium-free total parenteral nutrition
Chromium Sources
Nuts, chocolate, whole grains, mushrooms, asparagus
Chromium Toxicity
Airborne chromium is toxic, but toxicity of dietary sources is unclear
Molybdenum Role
Enzyme cofactor
Molybdenum Deficiency
Weakness, confusion from long-term molybdenum-free total parenteral nutrition
Molybdenum Sources
Peas, beans, organ meats, cereals
Molybdenum Toxicity
Possible reproductive problems
Boron Role
Appears to be involved in bone metabolism
Boron Deficiency
None reported
Boron Sources
Boron Toxicity
Poor appetite, nausea