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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 6 Vital signs?
temp., pulse, respiration, BP, Pain, oxygen saturation
When do you take vital signs?
on adm to facility, as sch, before/after surgery, when blood given, chg in current status, with meds that affect card., resp, and temp control
Body temperature definition
difference b/t amt. of heat produced by body and amt. of heat lost to external environment
Normal body temp range
96.8 - 100.4 F
Average oral temp
96.8 F
Which temp. is more reliable
What controls body temperature and where is it located?
hypothalmus, middle brain
What happens when there is an increase in temp above a set point?
vasodilatation, sweating
What happens when there is a decrease in temp below a set point?
vasoconstriction, muscle shivering, heat conservation
What is the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)?
heat produced by body at absolute rest (sleeping, watching tv)
What can increase BMR by up to 50x's the norm.
What can increase BMR 4x's normal?
What are the 4 types of heat loss?
radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation
What is radiation?
the transfer of heat b/t 2 objects w/o physical contact
What is an example of radiation?
sun, x-ray
What is conduction?
Transfer of heat from one object to another with direct contact
What is convection?
Transfer of heat away from objects
What is an example of convection?
circulating (fans)
What is evaporation?
transfer of energy when liquid is changed to gas
What is an example of evaporation?
sweat, ventilation
What is pyrexia?
What causes pyrexia?
when heat loss mechanisims are unable to keep pace w/ excess heat production resulting in an abnormal rise in body temp
When does a fever become harmful?
over 102 f
Is a single temp reading indictative of a fever?
Why is pyrexia important?
it is an immune defense, stimulates WBC production
What is hyperthermia?
elevated body temp r/t body's inability to promote heat loss or reduce heat production
When does hyperthermia occur?
after prolonged heat exposure
What are the s/s of hyperthermia?
N/V hot Dry skin, confusion
Who is most at risk for hyperthermia?
outside workers, elderly
What is hypothermia?
heat loss r/t prolonged cold exposure
What are the s/s of hypothermia?
uncontrolled shivering, loss of memory, depression, poor judgment, sleepy, extremities numb
When a person is hypothermic how low is their temp?
below 93.2 F
What falls when a person is hypothermic?
temp, resp, BP,
How fast should you warm a person with hypothermia?
Where are the intermittent temp sites?
tympanic membrane, mouth, rectum, axilla, or skin patch
What is the degree difference for rectal temps? axilla temps?
up 0.9 rectal, down 0.9 axilla
What is the F to C formula?
(104F - 32F) x 5/9 (0.56)=40C
What are the types of thermometers?
electronic, disposable, glass/Mercury
What is good about an electric thermometer?
fastest read time
What is good about a disposable thermometer?
single use, good w/ kids
Tell about glass/Mercury thermometer.
slowest, mercury toxic
What is the advantage to a tympanic temp?
sensitive to core temp, unaffected by food/drink
What is the advantage to a oral temp?
fast, easy
What is the advantage to a rectal temp?
reflects core
What is the advantage to an axilla temp?
safe, noninvasive
What is the advantage to a skin temp?
What is the disadvantage to an tympanic temp?
must remove hearing aids and have had no otic sx
What is a disadvantage to oral temps?
no food/drink 30 min before
What is a disadvantage to rectal temp?
no incontinence
What is a disadvantage to a axilla temp?
lags behind core temp
What is a disadvantage to a skin temp?
sweating unusable
What is pulse?
the palpable bounding of blood flow in a peripheral artery
What is the pulse rate?
the amount of pulsing sensations in one minute
cardiac volume
What is the average cardiac volume?
50-75 ml
What are the 4 parts to a stethoscope?
earpieces, tubing, diaphragm, bell
What is the normal pulse rate in an infant?
What is the normal pulse rate in a school age child?
What is the normal pulse rate for an adult?
What is tachycardia
abnormally elevated heartrate over 100
what is bradycardia?
abnormally low HR under 60
What is the normal pulse rhythm?
regular interval between each beat
What is dysrhythmia?
interval interrupted by early or late beats
Pulse deficit?
difference b/t apical and radial pulse
What is the pulse strength?
volume of blood ejected against arterial wall w/ each heart contraction
What are the 4 types of pulse strength?
Thready 1+, Strong 2+, Full 3+, Bounding 4+