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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where do the extraoccular muscles attach?
to the sclera
what is the main function of the cornea?
to bend/refract light
what type of epithelium is in the cornea?
stratified squamous
what is the first tissue that light passes through in the cornea?
the epithelium
what is the area of CT right under the epithelium that doesn't have any cells, only ECM in the cornea?
Bowman's membrane
what is the thickest part of the cornea that has cells and ECM?
stroma
what type of cells are in the stroma of the cornea?
fibroblasts
what is Descemet's membrane?
the membrane that the endothelim sits on in the cornea?
what type of cells make up the endothelium in the cornea?
simple cuboidal
what is the major refractive structure of the eye?
the cornea
what type of collagen primarily makes up the ECM of the stroma?
Type I Collagen
what is the morphological pattern in the cornea?
orthogonal layers....fibers in alternating layers are perpindicular to each other
what helps the cornea be transparent?
the spacing, allignment, and hydration
what is the most common cause of the loss of transparency in the cornea?
corneal swelling
what is the function of the corneal endothelium?
it pumps water out of the adjacent stroma and maintains proper corneal hydration- thus, transparency
what controls the hydration of the stroma?
the endothelium
what is the second function of the endothelium besides hydration?
serves as a barrier so that water cannot leak back in from the Anterior Chamber
what is the primary way that the cornea becomes opaque?
decompensation of the tissue with age...decrease in cell number in the endotheilum, which causes failure to maintain the pump and barrier function
what is the next tissue that light passes through after the cornea?
the anterior chamber
what does the anterior chamber contain?
aqueous humor (similar to CSF)
what controls the interocular pressure?
the continuous pathway and flow of the aqueous humor
what do problems with interocular pressure lead to?
glaucoma
what is the lens suspended by?
suspensory ligament or zonules from the ciliary body
what is the primary function of the lens?
to bend light (secondary to the cornea)
what is the ECM that surrounds the lens?
capsule
what cell type is the epithelium in the lens?
simple cuboidal
what are the cells called that make up the lens?
lens fibers
what is accomodation in the lens?
the lens changing shape to focus on near objects
what are reasons that the lens is transparent
1) low concentration of proteins and no organelles in the lens fibers
2) there is little ECM (the cells are tightly packed)
3) avascular
what happens to the lens with age?
becomes less elastic...can't accomodate (focus on near objects)
what does light pass through after the lens?
the virteous body
although the virtious body is nearly water and accelular, what types of macromolecules does it include?
Type II Collagen and hyaluronic acid
where are the collagen fibers thicker in the virteous body?
where they border the retina
what is the limiting lamina?
the basement membrane of the retinal Muller glial cells (right next to the vitrious body)
where is the zone of highest visual accuity?
fovea
where is the blind spot in your eye?
optic nerve
where does the retina develop from in embryogenesis?
optic cup
what are the two layers of the retina (derrived from the optic cup)?
1) Neural/Sensory Retina
2) Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE)
what layer of the retina contains the neuron cell bodies of rods and cones?
Outer Nuclear Layer (ONL)
which layer contains the SYNAPSES of rods and cone axons with the next layer of bipolar neurons?
Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL)
which layer contains the nuclei of the bipolar neurons?
Inner Nuclear Layer (INL)
which layer contains that synapses of bipolar axons with the gangion cells?
Inner Plexiform layer (Inner Plexiform Layer)
which layer contains the nuclei of gangion cells?
Ganglion Layer
whcih layer contains that axons of ganglion cells that converge to form the optic nerve?
Nerve Fiber Layer (NFL)
what area is the fovea located inside?
the macula
what is the ocular fundus?
the back of the eye
why does the fovea have such high accuity vision?
because layers of the retina are pushed laterally and retinal blood vessels are absent...so that there is nothing to interfere with light coming in...unimpeded light strikes the outer segments of cone photoreceptors
why is the retina so sensitive to Oxygen depletion?
because the photoreceptors (rods and cones) are the most metabolically active cells in your body
what do the inner segments of the photoreceptors do?
they synthesizze organelles fo protein synthesis and energy production
what is the function of the outer segments of the photoreceptors?
they are flattened membrane discs with photosensitive visual pigments
which type of photoreceptor has a long, slender outer segment?
rods
which type of photoreceptor has a conical outer segment with membrane discs?
cones
which type of photoreceptor is more sensitive to light?
rods
which type of photoreceptor is responsible for high acuity and color vision?
cones
what is between rods and cones?
the INNER PHOTORECEPTOR MATRIX...what keeps your retina attached to the back of your eye
what is the path of light in the retina?
from photoreceptor to bipolar cell to gangion cell to the brain
what does info travel through to get to the brain?
the lateral geniculate nucleus to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe
what two types of neurons in the retina provide partial processing of information before it is sent to the brain?
horizontal neurons and amacrine neurons
what is the major glial cell of the retina?
Muller glial cell.....provides insulation for visual signaling
where is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) located?
external to the neural retina
what type of cells make up the RPE?
cuboidal epithelium
what does the RPE contain?
melanin
what is the ECM separating the RPE and the capillary bed of the choroid?
Bruch's membrane
what is the RPE between?
neural retina and the Bruch's membrane
what are the functions of the retina?
1) melanin absorbs stray light
2) metablizes Vitamin A
3) phagotasizes/sheds photoreceptor outer segments
4) provides the outer blood-retinal barrier
where is the choroid located?
between the RPE layer and the sclera
what is the function of the choroid?
it provides nutrition to the other retina
what is the uvea?
the choroid and the ciliary body together
what is the choroid continuous with?
the ciliary body in the anterior
what surrounds and supports the uvea?
the sclera
what is the dense fibrous tunic surrounding the vascular tissues of the uvea?
the sclera
what is the sclera continuous with in the anterior?
the stroma of the cornea
what is the function of the sclera in addition to covering the blood vessels?
point of insertion for the extraocular muscles
what controls the lens shape during accomodation?
the ciliary body
what makes up the ciliary body?
2 layers of epithelium
1) pigmented layer
2) non-pigmented layer
how does the ciliary body support the lens?
through the zonules (and muscles that support the lens)
a pupil is a hole in what stucture?
the iris
what is the colored portion of the eye called?
the iris
the iris is connective tissue ____ with _________
stroma......melanocytes
where is the pigmented epithelium located?
on the posterior surface
what determines eye color?
melanocytes in the iris
what controls the light entry to the pupil?
dilator and constrictor muscles in the iris
where does the internal retina get its blood supply from?
internal carotid- opthalmic- retinal artery system- central retinal artery - inner retina
where does the exterior retina get its blood supply?
internal carotid- opthalmic- ciliary artery systems- posterior ciliary- short posterior ciliary artery- external retina