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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What does Virus mean?
nasty slimy poison
What are some examples of viral diseases?
rabies, measles, polio, smallpox, yellow fever, all the flus
First *blank* were against viruses
vaccines
Define inoculation
uses virus itself
Who was the most intellectual woman of her time? What did she do?
-Lady Mary Wortley Montague
-Inoculated people by using ground up scabs of smallpox
Who was one of Lady Mary WOrtley Montague's infulential lovers?
Jan Ingenhauz
Define vaccination
-uses simlar viruses
-a slur that made fun of this process
What are Louis Pasteur's accomplishments?
-pasteurization
-disproved spontaneous generation
-created vaccine for rabies
-saved french vineyards
Rabies
settles in brain and spinal chord
almost 100% fatal
Who loved Pasteur so much that he died for him?
Meister
What does TMV stand for?
Tabacco Mosaic Virus
Some viruses have a 3rd layer, what is it made of?
What is it called?
-phospholipid bilayer
-envelope
What is a nucleocapsid?
nucleic acid + capsid
What are the subunits of capsid's called?
capsomeres
What are the 3 types of viruses as per their genomes?
DNA, RNA, retroviruses
What are 3 general shapes of viruses?
complex, icosahedral and helical
What's the range in site of viruses?
20nm-200nm
Who discovered that foot and mouth disease is a filtered out disease?
Loeffler and Frosch
Who made up the word bacterophage
Wtort, d'Herelle
Who discovered that Yellow Fever is transferred by mesquitos?
Walter Reed
Who was the first to determine that TMV cannot be cultured?
Ivanowski
Conclusion: TMV is caused by a contagious living fluid.
Who said this?
Beijerinck
Conclusion: TMV is a toxin from bacteria.
Who said this?
Ivanowski
Who was the first person to crystalize TMV?
L. Stanley
Who determined the shape of TMV
Franklin
Who was the first to create a vaccination against rabies?
Pasteur
Who made the vaccination for smallpox by using cowpox pus?
Jenner
Conclusion: Toxin-a chemical-produced by bacteria was causing disease. *WRONG*
Who said this?
Ivanowski
Conclusion: Something "much smaller and simpler than a bacterium" *RIGHT*
Who said this?
Beijerinck
What are viruses carried by arthropods called?
arboviruses
What are the viruses that are the cause of many head colds called?
rhinoviruses
How are viruses named?
Random
Some named by the disease, vector that carries them, some by the hosts/tissue they infect, where they showed up, by their shape, by T-evens
What are some general properties of viruses? (4 things)
intracellular parasites
cannot replicate or metabolize on their own
not really alive
don't replicate by mitosis or binary fission
What are the possibilities of a virus genome? (4 things)
DNA or RNA as genetic material
Circular or linear
Limited size genome uses host cell's proteins for most functions
variability of nucleic acid suggests multiple points of evolutionary origin.
How are the proteins on a capsid arranged?
Why?
so that hydrophobic "R" groups are positioned towards the outside.

Makes capsid resistant to: pH changes, temperature changes, radiation effects, resistant to water
What virus codes for colds and pink eye?
adenovirus
What virus causes genital warts?
Papillomavirus
What is the #1 STD?
genital warts
what are the 4 herpes viruses?
Herpes simplex (regular and genital)
CMV-cytomegalovirus
Varicella Zoster (chickenpox)
Epstein-Barr (mononucleosis
What are some Major DNA viruses?
Adenovirus
Papillowmavirus
Herpes Viruses
What are some Major RNA viruses?
Influenza
Rotavirus
Paramyxoviruses
Enteroviruses
Ebola
Avian Flu
What causes hemorraging and is a 90% killer?
Ebola
What is related to Hendra?
Paramyxoviruses-measles
What does rotavirus cause?
3 months-5 year olds usually get it and it causes running nose, diarrhea
What are the 7 steps of viral replication?
1. Attachment
2. Penetration
3. Early steps in replication
4. Viral Nucleic Acid replication
5. Synthesis of proteins for capsomeres
6. Assembly and Packaging
7. Release
What virus causes stomach flu?
enteroviruses
define antigenic drift
little changes in a virus
define antigenic shift
virus "recombines" or mutates
define host range
what cells can the virus infect
virus has one or more proteins that interact with integral proteins or other structures on host cell to gain entry...what are 3?
peplomeres
tail fibers
some kinda surface proteins
what flu came straight from birds?
spanish flu of 1918