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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a virus?
an ultra-microscopic, intracellular, obligate parasite consisting of a core of infectious nucleic acid (either RNA or DNA) usually surrounded by a protein coat That can be single or multicomponent
What is the function of the protein coat (capsid)?
Protects nucleic acid
Serves to "fingerprint" a virus (antibody production)
Specifically interacts with corresponding vector
Who is the Father of Virology
Martinus Willem Beijerinck
What is the morphology of viruses (types)?
Spherical, Rigid rods, Flexuous rods, Bacilliform, Geminate
Do the majority of plant viruses have DNA or RNA?
How do you find out the taxonomy of viruses?
DNA/RNA sequences
Genome org
Similar morph
Effect on plant cells
How do you diagnose plant viruses?
Pathogenicity-bioassays using indicator plants
Mode of Transmission-Vector transmission assays
Electron microscopy
Virus-specific structures
Properties of protein coat-ELISA
Properties of viral nucleic-PCR
What are the symptoms of a plant virus?
stunting, mosaic, mottle, necrosis, distortion, stempitting, graft incompatibility, interveinal yellowing, vein clearing, ringspot, color break
What are signs of plant viruses?
particles using electron microscopy
How are viruses transmitted?
Insects, fungi, nematodes, seed, mechanical transmission, veg propagation
What are the mechanisms of virus transmission?
1. Non-persistent--"stylet-borne"; colonization not important for infection
2. Persistent--circulative; colonization important, circulateds in salivary glands, midgut or hemocoel
3. Persistent, circulative-propagative; replicates for entire life of insect
What are the components of a viroid?
naked RNA
single stranded cavalent circles
about 350 nucleotides in length
no vector
How do you manage and control viruses?
Certification programs
Quarantine and inspection
Meristem culture for virus elimination
Vector control
Host plant resistance
Cross protection
What is serology?
a method using the specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction for the detection and identification of antigenic substances and the organisms that carry them
What is ELISA?
Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay; a serological test in which the sensitivity of the reaction is increased by attaching an enzyme that produces a colored product to one of the reactants
What is a virion?
complete virus particle
What shape is a bacilliform particle?
shaped like short rods with rounded ends
What is an inclusion body?
structure developed within a plant cell as a result of infection by a virus, often useful in identifying the virus
What is an indicator plant?
plant that reacts to a pathogen or an environmental factor with specific symptoms, used to detect or identify the pathogen or determine the effects of the environmental factor(inoculation of an indicator plant)
What is a meristem culture?
aseptic in vitro culture of a plant or plant part from a portion of the meristem; a method used to produce pathogen-free plants
What is PCR?
Polymerase Chain Reaction; a technique used to amplify the number of copies of a specific region of DNA in order to produce enough of the DNA for use in various applications such as identification and cloning
What does contagium vivum fluidum mean and who came up with it?
a contagious living fluid by Beijerinck
What does single and multicomponent is a virus mean?
Single is that the genes are located on a single piece of nucleic acid.
Multicomponent means that genes are located on more than one piece on nucleic acid.
What family and genus is Tomato spotted wilt virus in?
Family Bunyaviridae
Genus Tospovirus
What is the vector of TSWV?