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26 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
all HANTAVIRUSES are endemic in...
rodents
HANTAVIRUS (transmission to humans)
via rodent urine and feces
HANTAVIRUS pulmonary syndrome
aquired by:
characterized by:
aquired by inhalation of rodent extreta
characterized by respiratory failure due to pulmonary edema

no human to human transmission
SMALLPOX VIRION
dsDNA
both ENVELOPED and NAKED forms
largest nucleic acid content of all animal viruses
large and brick shaped (no obvious symmetry)
contain protein and lipid
assembly of SMALLPOX virus core
inside the cell
release of SMALLPOX virus core
by lysis or budding through a virus-modified cellular membrane
what is necessary for SMALLPOX immunity
different antibodies to neutralize both the ENVELOPED and NAKED forms of the virus
is the smallpox virion stable to drying?
The UNENVELOPED FORM IS STABLE TO DRYING

The ENVELOPED form is NOT
enzyme contained by POXVIRUS virion
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that makes mRNA
what is a major difference between poxviruses and all other DNA viruses (and retroviruses)
they are the only DNA viruses that have a genome for their own RNA polymerase, all other DNA viruses (and retroviruses) use the cellular RNA polymerase II to make their mRNA
focus of viral multiplication in SMALLPOX

how can foci be detected?
cytoplasm

detectable by autoradiography of 3H-thymidine incorporation (foci) or the usual histo stains (inclusion bodies)
Inclusion bodies in general are
a. caused by many dfft kinds of viruses- may be useful in viral id
b. intracellular location usually indicates site of virion or nucleocapsid assembly
c. usually contain virions, nucleocapsids, viral nucleic acid or viral protein
clinical manifestations of SMALLPOX
papules, vesicles, pustules

dried virus in pustule crusts is also infectious
SMALLPOX transmission
lesions in the oral mucosa are main source of new infections which result from inhalation of aerosols
SMALLPOX VACCINE
Edward Jenner noted cowpox infection gives immunity to smallpox

no vaccination is performed with vaccinia virus (LIVE VACCINE)
SMALLPOX prevalence
has been eradicated by immunization

RING VACCINATION

no non-human reservoirs
RING VACCINATION
the immunization of populations surrounding isolated cases

usefully in eliminating smallpox in Africa and Asia
what WAS used for severe complications of SMALLPOX?
passive immunization iwth human vaccinia-immune globulia.
SMALLPOX transmission
spread efficiently by inhaled aerosol route in non-immune populations
SMALLPOX: routine vaccination ended when?
1971 in the US

highly protective for only 10-20 years, USA population largely susceptible
SMALLPOX was weaponized in
sovient union and other nations may have also done so
CURRENT POLICY regarding SMALLBOX in biowarfare
vaccinate medical and other personnel

RING VACCINATION to halt outbreak

(vaccine protective 3 days after infection, at least against severe disase)
only poxvirus you might see
MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM
MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM (transmission of poxvirus that causes it)
intimate cutaneous contact
MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM (incubation period)
2-8 weeks, pearly white pustules appear

disease is self-limiting, but may takes months or years
MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM (diagnosis)
may be difficult

grows poorly in culture