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18 Cards in this Set

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Are antivirals virustatic or virucidal? Why?
Virustatic: have no effect on latent viruses.
What are two guanine analogues that are effective against the herpesviridae viruses?
Acyclovir
Ganciclovir
What is the difference between acyclovir and ganciclovir?
acyclovir needs to be activated by a viral thymidine kinase, and ganciclovir does not.
What herpesviridae does not have a thymidine kinase?
CMV
Acyclovir is used for what viruses?
Herpes simplex
Varicella-zoster
What is the difference between acyclovir and famciclovir/valacyclovir?
Increased drug levels after oral absorption. Same mechanism.
What are advantages and disadvantage of ganciclovir when compared to acyclovir?
Broader coverage but more toxic
Will cause neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.
What are the step in viral replication that can be targeted with antivirals?
1. Attachment
2. Penetration and uncoating
3. RNA/DNA synthesis
4. Protein synthesis
5. Virion assembly
6. Stimulator of host innate immune response
What are the protease inhibitors used for HIV and HCV?
Saquinavir
Indivair
Ritonavir
What are the anti-influenza drugs? What are the mechanisms?
Amantadine
Rimantadine

Inhibit acid-mediated change in conformation of hemagglutinin protein. (ion channel blocker)

Neuraminidase inhibitors:
Zanamivir
Oseltamivir

Blocks the active site of neuraminidase and prevents removal of sialic acid residues causing clumping of the viral progeny.
When are zanamivir and oseltamivir effective?
When flu symptoms are less than 2 days old.
How effective are neuraminidase inhibitors?
reduce disease syndrome by 1 day, but may decrease secondary complications
What is the frequency of antiviral resistance with neuraminidase inhibitors compared with ion channel blockers?
More frequent with ion channel blockers (amantadine/rimantadine), but possible.
HIV protease inhibitors mimic what structures?
gag-pol polyproteins, but are uncleavable.
What causes protease inhibitor resistence?
alteration of the protease
What cytokine is typically used to treat HCV?
Interferon alpha treats B/C infections, but relapse is common when drug is discontinued
What is imiquimod and what is the mechanism of action?
Immune modifier causing cytokine release following binding to a toll-like receptor.
What are the HIV antiretroviral targets?
Reverse transcriptase
Protease
Entry