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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the basic characteristics of Flaviviruses
Single stranded, positive sense RNA
What diseases does family Bunyaviridae cause
Hanta Virus, Sin Nombre
Crimean-Congo Hemmorhagic Fever
Rift Valley Fever
California and Lacrosse Encephalitis
What diseases does family Flaviviridae cause
Japanese Enchephalitis
Yellow Fever
What disease does family Rhabdoviridae cause
What are some characteristics of Bunyaviridae
Encompass a large group of arthropod-borne viruses

Genera / Virus
Hantavirus: Hantaan, Dobrava, Seoul, Puumala
Nairovirus: Crimean-Congo HF
Phlebovirus: Rift Valley Fever
How is Hantavirus transmitted
It is a zoonosis of rodents. The virus is aerosolized in rodent excrete (no arthropod vector)
What causes Rift Valley Fever
Phlebovirus, one of the Bunyaviruses
What are some basic characteristics of Rift Valley fever
Virus: RVF virus
Reservoir - Sheep, goats, cattle, and camels
Vector: Aedes mosquitoes (mcintoshi)
Occasional/rare transmission by aerosol from parturient livestock
Distribution: sub-Saharan Africa
Peak transmission: Rainy season
What are the clinical features of Rift Valley fever
-Fever, Headache, Joint and Muscle pains
-Conjunctivitis, Photophobia
Vertigo, Prostration, Nausea, Vomiting, Altered Vision
What are some complications that can arise from Rift Valley Fever
-Retinitis 5%-10% develop retinitis 1-3 weeks following fever
-Macular exudates (cotton wool)
-Retinal hemorrhages, Vasculitis 50% with permanent visual impairment
-Meningoenchephalitic syndrome
-Fulminant disease (1%)
What will the clinical laboratories look like in Rift Valley Fever
Anemia, Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia
Increased fibrin degradation products
How should Rift Valley fever be treated
Supportive Care
Ribavirin (inhibits transcription)
How is Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever transmitted
Reservoir: Hares, Domestic animals
Vector: Hyalomma ticks
Contact w/ blood of humans or dead animals
Nosocomial outbreaks have been reported
What is the vector for Dengue
Mosquito (Aedes aegypti/albopictus)
What is the leading arboviral (mosquito-borne) infection
Dengue, caused by a Flavivirus. Though transmitted by mosquitos, it is an exclusively human disease
What is the vector of Japanese encephalitis
The mosquito Culex spp. The virus (a Flavivirus) is transmitted in a zoonotic cycle between ardeids and swine
What is the function of the NS1 Flavivirus protein
Function is unknown, but it may mediate disease pathogenesis
What is the vector for Yellow Fever
Aedes and Hemogogus spp. It displays urban and sylvatic cycles
What are the characteristics of the Rhabdoviridae family
Enveloped, elongated and rodlike, single stranded negative sense RNA
Includes Lyssavirus (Rabies), Ephemerovirus, and Vesiculovirus
What are the signs and symptoms of rabies
Chills, fever, headache, photophobia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sore throat, cough, malaise
Abnormal sensation around the bite site
-Itching, burning, numbness, or paresthesia
Myoedema (prodromal period with persistence)
-Mounding of part of the muscle struck with a reflex hammer
What are the four periods of rabies infection
Incubation period
Prodromal period - 2 to 10 day
Acute neurologic phase
-Anxiety, agitation, dysphagia, hypersalivation, paralysis, seizure
Coma preceding death
What are the two types of acute neurologic phases in rabies infection
“Furious rabies” (Encephalitic, Hyperactivity)
Hydrophobia, delirium, agitation
Neurologic period ends after 2 to 7 days
Coma or sudden death (respiratory or cardiac arrest)
“Paralytic or Dumb” rabies (Paralysis)
20% of patients (certain viral variants = vampire bat rabies)
Sensorium is largely spared
Paresthesia and weakness → flaccid paralysis → plegia
Usually less rapidly progressive
Final stage is coma, 3 to 7 days, then death
What is the viral pathogenesis of Lyssavirus genotype 1 (rabies)
Entry to peripheral neurons via AchR
Axoplasmic transport to cell body
Cell to cell spread up to CNS
Negri bodies are pathognomonic
What is the standard for the diagnosis of rabies
Direct fluorescent antibody staining of biopsy or necropsy
What are Negri bodies
Pathognomonic for rabies
Round or oval inclusions w/in cytoplasm of nerve cells
Size from 0.25 to 27 µm
Pyramidal cells of Ammon's horn
Purkinje cells of the cerebellum
Neurons of the salivary glands, tongue, or other organs