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33 Cards in this Set

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What are some common features of Adenoviruses
Non-enveloped virus with icosahedral capsid. Contains linear, double stranded DNA genome
Highly stable and replicate to high titers. Can produce respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary tract and eye diseases
What are some common features of parvoviruses
Non-enveloped virus, icosahedral capsid, contains linear, single-stranded DNA
What virus causes 5% of all acute respiratory tract illnesses, including pharyngitis, atypical pneumonia, and pharyngoconjunctival fever
What virus can cross the placenta to infect a fetus and cause hydrops fetalis
Parvovirus B19
In what cells does the adenovirus replicate
Epithelial cells
What does the adenovirus virion consist of
The capsid (outer protein shell comprised of hexons and pentons) and the core (viral DNA-protein complex comprised of at least 4 proteins)
What part of the adenovirus is cytotoxic
The penton base and fiber
What does E1A in the adenovirus do
Modulates cell cycle by binding Rb
What does E1B in adenovirus do
Blocks cellular apoptosis by binding p53
What are the six steps of adenovirus replication
1: Attachment, Penetration and Uncoating
2: Early gene expression (E1A, E1B), shut down host mRNA transport, block CTL response, VA RNAs inhibit interferon response
3: DNA replication in the nucleus at 6-9 hrs post infection, uses a protein primer to initiate DNA synthesis
4: Late gene expression
5: Maturation
6: Cell lysis
What are the in vitro cytopathic effects of adenovirus
Rounding up of cells, and intranuclear inclusion bodies with crystalline arrays of viral capsid structures
What are the in vivo cytopathic effects of adenovirus
Disruption of host cell metabolism causes cell degeneration that can be seen histologically in biopsies or autopsy tissues. Large intranuclear inclusion bodies
In what cells do lytic adenovirus infections occur
Mucoepithelial cells
In what cells do latent adenovirus infections occur
Lymphoid and adenoid cells
How susceptible are adenoviruses to the environment
Virions resist drying, detergents, gastrointestinal tract secretions (acid, proteases, and bile), and mild chlorine treatment
How are adenoviruses transmitted
Respiratory and fecal-oral routes
What respiratory diseases are caused by adenoviruses
Pharyngitis (children <3yrs old)
Pharyngoconjunctival fever--acute febrile pharygitis accompanied by conjunctivitis. Most commonly Ad3,4,7,21
Acute respiratory disease (ARD)--commonly Ad4,7; colder months of the year, boot camp
What are six common types of disease caused by adenoviruses
Respiratory diseases
Conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis
Gastroenteritis and diarrhea
Bladder infection
Systemic infection in immunocompromised patients
Which adenoviruses cause conjunctivitis (swimming pool) and epidemic keratoconjunctivits (industrial workers, eye care facilities )
Ad8 and 19
What adenoviruses cause gastroenteritis and diarrhea, including 15% of gastroenteritis in hospitalized patients
Serotypes 40,41,42 (enteric adenoviruses, rarely associated with respiratory diseases)
What adenovirus causes bladder infection or hemorrhagic cystitis
Ad11, often seen with children
What adenovirus causes urethritis or cervicitis
Ad 37
What virus causes erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), aplastic crisis in people with chronic hemolytic anemia (those with sickle cell disease), and hydrops fetalis (anemia and congestive heart failure) in seronegative pregnant women
Parvovirus B19
How is parvovirus B19 transmitted
Respiratory droplets and oral secretions; also parenterally by blood-clotting factor concentrate
What is the smallest DNA virus
What does the non-structural (NS) Rep protein of parvovirus B19 encode
A protein important for cutting the replicative form of DNA and unwinding viral DNA during replication
What structures are essential for the initiation of parvovirus genome replication
Palindromic sequences of ~115nt which form hairpins
What cellular receptor does parvovirus B19 use for replication
Erythrocyte P antigen
What four human diseases are associated with parvovirus B19
Erythema infectiosum (5th disease)
Aplastic crisis in people with chronic hemolytic anemia (sickle cell anemia)
Hydrops fetalis (anemia and congestive heart failure)
In Erythema infectiosum caused by parvovirus B19, what will typically appear around 17-18 days
What type of cell does parvovirus B19 infect
Mitotically active erythroid precursors
What disease has nonspecific symptoms of headaches, malaise, myalgia, fever, chills, pruritus, and reticulocytopenia. Erythema appears 17-19 days post exposure, characterized by lacy, mascular rash on face (slapped cheek) that may spread to the trunk and extremities
Arthritis and/or arthralgia associated in 80%
Fifth disease (erythema infectiosum, slapped cheek disease). Caused by parvovirus B19
Infection with what results in a transient depletion of erythrocyte precursors and a reduction in erythropoiesis, which leads to reticulocytopenia and a decrease in hemoglobin level that lasts for 7-10 days
Parvovirus B19. The disease described is Transient aplastic crisis