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50 Cards in this Set

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What is Chapitilaztion?
The process of adding sugar to low alcohol wines to increase the alcohol level. Does not increase sweetness.
What is Malolactic Fermentation?
A naturally accurring process that transforms tart mallic acids into softer lactic acids making the wine taste softer. Increase in temp. casues this.
What is Maceration?
process in which phenolic materials ( tannins, colors and flavor compounds) are leached from the skins, seeds, and stems of grapes into the must
At what temperature do vines, thrive, flower, and produce fruit?
grapevines thrive where long warm frost free periods allow them to develop.
Below 50 degrees vines remain dormant.
Between 63-68 degrees, vines flower. About 15% of these flowers become fertilized and “set” , turning into grapes. The rest die as “shatter”.
In the mid 80’s vines flourish in their growth.
Name 2 mildews that aversly affect grapes
powdery mildew causes white spores on the green parts of vines and causes the grapes to split open

downy mildew which attacks the green parts and causes the leaves to fall off.
What is the virus spread by mealy bugs and infected cuttings called and what does it do to the vine?
Leaf roll virus, causes a decrease in yield, a delay in ripening, and reduces the quality of the wine.
Define Sur Lie
On The Lies - lees are mad eup of dead yeast cells, pips, pulp, and other solids that fall to the bottom of the barrel during fermentation
What is the non-pollination of some vines called?
what causes it?
What are the effects of this?
Coulure
Casues the grapes to fall off or never devlope
Is caused by cold or wet weather at flowiering time.
This fungal disease causes the wood of the vine to die slowly.
What is the cure?
Eutypa, Eutypia, Eutipise or Dead Arm disease
there is no cure
What is Phylloxera
A tiny yellow Aphid that decimated most of the worlds vine roots. North American roots are immune.
What are Microclimates?
A microclimate is the small area around a single vine or small groups of vines.
What is Botrytis cinerea?
a rot which causes teh grapes to dry out and shrivel. They become low in moisture and highly concentrated in sugar. Most dessert wines are made with grapes that have been affected by this
What is the fungal disease that causes leaves and shoots to be deformed?
Fanleaf degeneration or fanleaf disease reduces yield and causes poor fruit set.
What is Millerandage?
The result of cold wet weather at flowering that causes poor fruit set and reduces the yield.
Weather
Frost is the biggest vine killer, with drought being the next worst.
Wind - too much wind can cause the vines to close down, stopping the growing process. Some wind is good to dry vines and prevent rot.
What are nematodes and how do they affect the vine?
tiny roundworms that feed on the roots of vines and transmit diseases
Wha is the best Latitude for growing grapes?
The 49th parralel
between 30 degrees and 50 degrees lattitude, although this is stretching to 51 degrees due to global warming
Fermentation Regimen
alocohilc fermentation occurs first, followed by malolactic fermentation if it is needed.

Fermentation is started using natural yeasts sometimes, but normally cultured yeasts. Fermentation is slowed by lowering the temp. to produce better quality wine. Sulpher dioxide is added to prevent and or kill other bad yeatst etc. Cultured yeatst are then added to start fermentaion.
What does grape skin contact do to wines?
Contact with skin imparts color and tannins into the wine.
What is Fining?
Fining clarifies a wine of tiny solids still in it before bottling. Coagulants such as betonite, egg whites, casein, gelatin or isinglass are stirred into the wine. The tiny solids attach to them, fall to the bottom and the clear wine is racked off the top.
What is Filtering and when does it happen?
Filtering happens after oak aging and before bottling. It's very controversial. Is used to remove bacteria and particles that would spoil the wine, but sometimes it removes desirable particles as well and strips the wine of some flavors and aromas
How does filtering work?
wine is pumped through a series of porous pads made of simple cellulose fibers.
In loose polics filtration the pores are large and wine doesn't loose flavors/aromas.
What is the most important determinant of fermentation time?
Temperature. Fermentation proceeds faster at higher temperatures. Because white wines are fermented at a lower temperature, they typically require longer time to complete.
wine yield
160 gallons per ton
5 bottles per gallon
7 tons per acre
What are some disadvantages to wild yeast?
-Produce compounds that result in off flavors.
-Alcohol intolerant. Tolerate only about 4 - 6% alcohol.
-Unpredictable: Cannot anticipate the progress of the fermentation.
-SO2 sensitive:
What are characterisitcs of a good wine yeast strain?
-Reproducible and predictable
Vigorous fermentation (to outcompete spoilage organisms)
Complete fermentation (no sugar is left for spoilage organisms)
-Good alcohol tolerance (most commercial yeast will tolerate up to 17 - 18%)
High temp. tolerance
Minimal off flavors
SO2 tolerance.
True or false. Yeast strains are usually chosen for flavor.
False. The small flavor difference in wine are not very significant. Some aroma differences may be evident right after fermentation, but these generally disappear before wine is bottled.
Describe natural fermentations
Some winemakers do not innoculate their must w/ commerical yeast strains. Instead, they prefero to allow natural fermentations or wild fermentations to take place. These fermentations are probably carried out by resident strains of S. cervisiae that have become established in the vineyard or winery.
What is the relationship between Brix and Fahrenheit?
A reduction in sugar of 1 degree brix results in a temperature rise of 2.3F or 1.3C. This is important because it can result in a fermenting must that reaches a temperature high enough to kill the yeast.
Which grapes yield more juice? red or white?
Red grapes yield more because red grapes are pressed after fermentation when liquid can be more fully extracted. Also, red wines can be pressed harder since tannins are not undeseriable in red wines.
What is lees?
the solid material that the juice or wine contains after pressing. Consisits of fruid solids, dead yeast, or chemical precipitates.
What does barrel aging do?
adds vanilla and spicy flavors and sometimes smoky flavors if the barrel has been heavily toasted. Most premium red wines are aged 6 months to 2 years.
What barrels are usually used? How long does each barrel last?
French oak barrels have been the most popular w/ California premium winemakers, but American oak is being used in increasing amounts. Barrel typically lasts 5 - 10 years
What is Cold stabelization?
This is done to remove tartrates from wine, most often white wine. Tartrates are flavorless and harmless but they may look like cut glass to some. To remove them the winemaker chills the wine to about 40°F. for about 3 weeks. The crystals form and settle and the wine is removed from them.
what is a good fermentation regimen?
A good fermentation regimen is to hold the must at 4C (40F) for 5 days,
innoculate and warm to 32C (90F) for a day, then drop the temperature
down into the 15C to 26C (60F to 80F) range for a long fermentation,
pressing a couple days after cap fall.
what is microxygenation?
a process used in winemaking to introduce oxygen into wine in a controlled manner
describe the process of microxygenation?
The process of micro-oxygenation involves a large two chamber device with valves interconnected to a tank of oxygen. In the first chamber the oxygen is calibrated to match the volume of the wine. In the second chamber the oxygen is injected into the wine through a porous ceramic stone located at the bottom of the chamber. The dosage is controlled and can range anywhere from .75 to 3 cubic centimetre per liter of wine. The process normally occurs in the form of multiple treatments that can last anywhere from one or two treatments during the early stages of fermentation (to help avoid stuck fermentation) to a more prolong treatment during the maturation period that can last four to eight months.
when selecting a type of yeast to use, what should you consider?
what kind of wine your making, white, red, rose, sparkling?
define batonnage
the process of stirring up of the leese with a stick or paddle to increase flavor extraction. practiced with light flavored wines like muscadet
buttage
the stooping up of the soil around base of vine to protect the roots from frost damage
cryoextraction
when wine makers frese grapes to 20F then press thm.makes man made ice wine
cuvatision
the maceration of the grape skins in the fermenting juice during red production to extract color tannins and other things from skin
debourbage
the process of alloing sollids to settling out from the must proior to racking during wine production
passerliage
grapes that have been shriveled by strong winds or dried after picking
pigeage
the process of punching down the cap to drown the aerobic bacteria to keep skins fress and assist in cuvaison. the cap is the mix of skins & pips that rises to the top during fermentation
remontage
pumping the fermenting juice over the cap during cuvasion in red wine process
reverse osmosis
tecnique to reduce alcohol in wine
verasion
the stage in the grape cycle when the grape changes color & softents it is the begining of the ripening period
triage
hand soritng the grapes at a table
maceration pelliculare/prefermentation/cold soak
to incresase flavor of some white wines, white grapes are held in cntact with skins in cool temps for 6-10 hours