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44 Cards in this Set

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Birka
dates from 9th century, superimpportant trading post, sweden's oldest city
Old Uppsalla
site of pagan renaissance, last stronghold of the Germanics, Religious
Gotland
Island near Sweden, important stopping place for travel to far east
Staraja Ladoga
used to be a prosperous trading post, first capital of Rus
Novgorod
part of the trading route to the Orient and founding place of the Kievan Rus, predecessor state of three modern East Slavic nations: Belarus, Russia and Ukraine
Itil
Ancient name of the Volga Sea, runs into the Black Sea
Steppe
plains in Russia that don't have an trees. Where the slavs lived and farmed
Volga
used to be called itil, flows into black sea, was controlled by the Khazars, largest river in europe, important trading route that connected europe to middle east
Dnieper
another river that flows from Russia to the Black Sea, Arheimar, a capital of the Goths, was located on the Dnieper.
Volkhov
heavily populated trade artery river. Part of scand oriental trade route
Dirham
unit of currency in the Arab Caliphates
Rus
Scandinavian influenced 10th and 11th century civilization in Russia, was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular but by no means the only theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly, with Scandinavian roots. The Slavic Rus’ people were the historical predecessors of modern Belarusians, Russians, and Ukrainians
Varaginans
were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards and southwards. Engaging in trade, piracy and mercenary activities, reached Caspain Sea
Ibn Fadlan
922; was a 10th century Arab Muslim writer and traveler who wrote an account of his travels as a member of an embassy of the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad to the king of the Volga Bulgars
Mikligard
Viking name for Constantinople, Plundered in 860 and then extracted tribute, Kievan emperor gave byzantine emperor 6000 varangian guards
Russian Primary Chronicle
history of the Rus from 850-1150, based in Kiev, only written source of Medieval Slavic peoples
Catch 22
people who are Christianized enough to write about paganism arent pagan enough to be able to have firsthand knowledge of the belief system.
Written Evidence
law codes, sagas, runic inscription. Issue: too christians
Place names
evidence of God-names, connection to personal names
Odin
chief god of norse mythology, one-eyed (wisdom) carrying weapon, mead of inspiration, god of war, vallahalla, sahpe changer
Thor
son of odin, red haired beared god of thunder, one of most powerful god, protected midgard and asgard. can throw lightning bolts and has a hammer. cat paw/ snake, drinking/ ocean
Frig
wife of odin, queen of aesir, goddess of the sky, also love, fertility, home management, and motherhood. primaryly as a mom and wife, could prophesize
Heimdall
guardian of the guards, acute senses can hear grass grow and see to the end of time, no need for sleep, son of 9 different mothers
AEsir
principal gods of the pantheon, war god
Vanir
secondary gods; gods of fertility, sea, and prosperity
Frey
rules over the rain and sun and produce in the fields, giantress steals his sword and killed at ragnorak, ancestor of teh royal swedish family
Freyja
norse fertility god, half of dead would go to her half to odin, goddess of love, beauty, war, and magic. Showed magic to AEsir
Loki
part moster, part giant and mixed blood with Odin, inciter and trickster who led to chaos
Tiw
Similar to thor, was really powerful but lost strength, lost hand due to lying of gods
Giantesses
mythological who are generally opposed to the gods, often marry
Norns
3 weird sisters that weave the threads of life
Valkyries
minor female dieties in Odin's service who carry the good dead warriors off to odin's chambers in valahalla
Yggdrasil
figure of the world tree whose roots connect the world, knowledge birth life
Ragnorak
end of the cosmos. Long winter, giant monsters, no sun... fire and ice
New Earth
idea that a utopian society will be resurrected after the Ragnorak, Christian?
Ansgar
9th cent bishop of hamburg/bremen credited with bringing christianity to scandinavia
Audr
character appearing in Snorri Sturrelson's Prose Edda. Dad of a girl who marries a king, Some consider him a king of Finland. The name means "wealth"
Harald Finehair
founder and first king of modern Norway, Expanded the small kingdom Vestfold that he inherited from his father in 872. didn't comb/cut his hair until he was king
Hakon the Good
3rd king of Norway, son of harald finehair he was brought up by King Aethelstan of England and was Christian. Took over for brother Eirik by promising tax-free land to Norwegians
Rorik
9th cent. Varangian chieftain who founded a dynasty, lasted until 17th century
Adam of Bremen
part of the church of Hamburg/Bremen that tried to convert Scandinavia, worked with the classics to write Gesta
Emma
daughter of Richard, duke of Normandy. she was the wife of both Canute and Aethelrad and William the Conqueror was her nephew
Egil Skallagrimsson
famous skald and Viking in 10th century. Egil's saga tells the tale of the great warrior and anti-hero of Viking/ Icelandic Literature. Maybe Snorri?
Snorri Sturlson
Icelandic poet, historian, politician, wrote Prose Edda, Heimskingala, famous for his theory of euhemerism which states that mythological gods are basically humans who died heroically and inspired cults of personality